PSY 499 Ch 1 & 2

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PSY 499 Ch 1 & 2
2013-05-16 16:10:34
Intro Psych

Ch 1 & 2
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  1. Cognitive Psychologists
    Psychologists whose research focus is analysis of the mental processes underlying judgement, decision making, problem solving, imagining, and other aspects of human though or cognition.
  2. Biological Psychologists
    • Psychologists who analyze the biological factors influencing behavior and mental processes
    • Also known as neuroscientists or physiological psychologists.
  3. Personality Psychologists
    Psychologists who focus on people's unique characteristics
  4. Developmental Psychologists
    • Psychologists who seek to understand, describe, and explore how behavior and mental processes change over the course of a lifetime. 
    • explore area's such as the development of thought, friendship patterns, and parenting styles
  5. Quantitative Psychologists
    Develop statistical methods for evaluating and analyzing data from psychological research.
  6. Clinical/Counseling/Community Psychologists
    Seek to assess, understand, modify, and prevent behavior disorders.
  7. Educational Psychologists
    Study methods by which instructors teach and students learn and who apply their results improving such methods.
  8. School Psychologists
    Test IQ, diagnose students' academic problems, and set up programs to improve student's achievements.
  9. Social Psychologists
    Study how people influence one another's behavior and attitudes, especially in groups
  10. Industrial/Organizational Psychologists
    Study leadership, stress, competition  pay and other factors that affect the efficiency  productivity, and satisfaction of workers and the organizations that employ them.
  11. Health Psychologists
    Study the effects of behavior on health and the impact of illness on behavior and emotion.
  12. Empiricism
    • View that knowledge comes from experience and observation 
    • Argue that our minds are more like a blank slate on which our experiences write a lifelong story 
    • John Locke, George Berkley, David Hume
  13. Consciousness
    Awareness of external stimuli and our own mental activity.
  14. Structuralism
    • Founded by Titchner, who was trained by Wundt
    • Study conscious experience and its structure thorough experiments and introspection.
  15. Gestalt Psychology
    • Founded by Max Wetheimer
    • Describes organization of mental processes; "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
    • Method: observation of sensory/perceptual phenomena
  16. Psychoanalysis
    • Founded by Sigmund Freud
    • Goal:Explain Personality and behavior; to develop techniques for treating mental disorders
    • Method:Study of Individual Cases
  17. Functionalism
    • Founded By: William James
    • Goal: Study how the mind works in allowing an organism to adapt to the environment
    • Method: Naturalistic observation of animal and human behavior
  18. Behaviorism
    • Founded By: Watson, Skinner, and Pavlov
    • Goal: Study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning principles
    • Method:Observation of the relationship between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses
  19. Biological Approach
    View that behavior is the result of physical processes, especially those relating to nervous system and the brain, to hormones, and to other chemicals
  20. Evolutionary Approach
    Emphasizes the inherited aspects of behavior and mental process adapted for survival.
  21. Psychodynamic Approach
    Emphasizes unconscious mental processes, usually sexual and aggressive desires, in explaining human though, feelings, and behavior.
  22. Behavioral Approach
    Based on the assumption that human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned in life, especially by rewards and punishment.
  23. Cognitive Approach
    View that emphasizes research on how the brain takes in information, creates perceptions, forms and retrieves memories, processes information, and generates integrated patterns of action.
  24. Humanistic Approach
    • Emphasizes individual potential or growth and the role of unique perceptions in guiding behavior and mental processes.
    • Carl Rogers and Maslow
  25. Sociocultural Variables
    Social identity and other background factors, such as gender, ethnicity, social class, and culture
  26. Culture
    Accumulation of values, rules of behavior, forms of expression, religious beliefs, and occupational choices for a group of people who share a common language and enviornment
  27. Hypothesis
    In scientific research, a specific, testable proposition about a phenonmenon
  28. Operational Definitions
    Statements that define phenomena or variables by describing the exact research operations or methods uses in measuring or manipulating them.
  29. Variables
    Specific factors or characteristics that can take on different numerical values in research
  30. Reliability
    Degree to which test results or other research evidence occurs repeatedly.
  31. Validity
    Degree to which evidence from a test or other research method measures what it is supposed to measure.
  32. Theory
    Inter grated set of propositions used to explain certain phenomena, including behavior and mental processes
  33. Naturalistic Observation
    Process of watching without interfering as a phenomena occurs in the natural enviorment
  34. Case Studies
    Research involving the intensive examination of some phenomena in a particular individual, group, or situation.
  35. Surveys
    Research that involves giving people questionnaires or interviews designed to describe their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions.
  36. Correlational Studies
    Research method that examine relationships between variables in order to analyze trends, test predictions, evaluate theories, and suggest new hypothesis
  37. Correlation
    • Degree to which one variable is related to another
    • Positive: means that two variable increase or decrease together
    • Negative: Means that the variables move in opposite directions
  38. Experiment
    Situation in which the researcher manipulates one variable and observes the effects of that manipulation on another variable, while holding all other variables constant.
  39. Independent Variable
    Variable manipulated by the researcher
  40. Dependent Variable
    Factor affected by the independent variable
  41. Experimental Group
    Group that receives the experimental treatment
  42. Control Group
    Group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which to compare the performance or response of the experimental group
  43. Confounding Variable
    Any factor that affects the dependent variable along with, or instead of, the independent variable
  44. Random Variables
    Uncontrolled or Uncontrollable factors that affect the dependent variable along with, or instead of, the independent variable
  45. Random Assignment
    Procedure through which random variables are evenly distributed in an experiment by placing participants in experimental and control groups bases on random processes.
  46. Placebo
    Treatment that contains no active ingredient but produces an effect because the person receiving it believes it will.
  47. Experimenter Bias
    Confounding variable that occurs when an experimenter unintentionally encourages participants to respond in a way that supports that hypothesis
  48. Double-Blind Design
    Research Design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is the experimental group and who is the control group
  49. Sampling
    Process of selecting participants who are members of the population that the researcher wishes to study
  50. Representative Sample
    Sample of research participants chosen from a larger population that the researcher such that their age, gender, ethnicity, and other characteristics are typical of that population
  51. Random Sample
    Group of research participants selected from a population each of whose members had an equal chance of being chosen.
  52. Biased Sample
    Group of research participants selected from a population each of whose members did not have an equal chance of being chosen.
  53. Behavioral Genetics
    Study of how genes and environments combine to affect behavior and mental processes.
  54. Data
    Numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis conclusions
  55. Statistically Significant
    Referring to a correlation, or a difference between two groups, that is larger than would be expected by chance
  56. Nervous System
    Network of billions of cells that detects what is going on inside or outside the body and guides appropriate responses.
  57. Neurons
    Specialized cells of the nervous system that send and receive messages.
  58. Glial Cells
    Specialized cells that help neurons by holding them together and helping them to communicate by directing their growth, keeping their chemical environment stable, provides energy  secrete chemicals to help repair damage, and respond to signals.
  59. Axon
    • Charcterstic: Fiber extending from cell body
    • Function: Carries signal away from the cell body
    • Type of signal carried: Action potential
  60. Dendrites
    • Characteristics: Fiber extending from cell body with branches 
    • Function: Detects and carries signals to the cell body
    • Type of signal carried: Postsynaptic potential
  61. Synapse
    • Characteristics: Gap between that separates the axon of one neuron and dendrites of another
    • Function: Provides and area for the transfer of signals between neurons, usually and axon and dendrite
    • Type of signal carried: Chemicals cross and reach receptors of another cell
  62. Neurotransmitter
    • Function:Chemical released by one cell that binds to the receptors of another cell. 
    • Type of signal carried: Chemical message telling the next cell to fire or not to fire its own action potential
  63. Receptor
    • Function: Proteins on the cell membrane that receive chemical signals 
    • Type of signal carried: Recognizes certain neurotransmitters, thus allowing it to begin a postsynaptic potential in the dendrite
  64. Action Potential
    Electrochemical impulse or message that is send down an axon and stimulate release of a neurotransmitter
  65. Refractory Period
    Short recovery time after cell firing, during which the cell cannot fire again
  66. Central Nervous System
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  67. Peripheral Nervous System
    Part of the nervous system that sends messages to and from the central nervous system
  68. Somatic Nervous System
    Subsystem of peripheral nervous system that transmits information from the SENSES to the CNS and carries signals from the CNS to the muscles that move the skeleton
  69. Autonomic Nervous System
    Subsystem of the PNS that carries messages between the CNS and the heart, lungs, and other organs and glands in the body. Activities that are independent of control
  70. Sympathetic Nervous System
    Subsystem of the automatic nervous the readies the body for stress
  71. Parasympathetic
    Subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body down and influences activities related to the protection, nourishment, and growth of the body.
  72. Nuclei
    Cluster of nerve cell bodies in the CNS
  73. Fiber Tracts
    Bundles of axons that travel together
  74. Spinal Cord
    Part of the CNS that receives information from the senses, passes these signals to the brain, and sends messages from the brain to the body
  75. Reflexes
    Simple, involuntary  unlearned behaviors directed by the spinal cord without instructions from the brain
  76. Hindbrain
    Portion of the brain that lies just inside the skill and is a continuation of the spinal cord. Includes medulla, reticular formation, and cerebellum
  77. Medulla
    Part of the hindbrain that regulates breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure
  78. Reticular Formation
    Collection of cells and fibers in hindbrain and midbrain that are involved in arousal and attention
  79. Cerebellum
    Part of the hindbrain that controls finely coordinated movements
  80. Midbrain
    small region between the hindbrain and forebrain that, includes various nuclei  and relays sensory signals to forebrain; creates automatic responses to certain stimuli  initiates smooth movement
  81. Forebrain
    Part of the brain responsible for complex aspects of behavior and mental life; includes thalamus, hypothalamus  amygdala, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and corpus callosum
  82. Thalamus
    Forebrain structure that interprets and relays sensory information
  83. Hypothalmus
    Forebrain structure that regulates hunger, thirst, and sex drives, with many connections to and from the autonomic nervous system and other parts of the brain
  84. Amygdala
    Forebrain structure that links information from various systems and plays a role in emotions; connects sensations and emotions
  85. Hippocampus
    Forebrain structure associated with the formation of new memories
  86. Cerebral Cortex
    Outer surface of the forebrain; Analyzes sensory information; controls voluntary movements, abstract thinking, and other complex cognitive activity
  87. Corpus Callosum
    Bundle of fibers that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres; transfers information between the two cerebral hemispheres.
  88. Sensory Cortex
    Part of cerebral cortex located in the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes that receives stimulus information from the skin, eyes, ears, respectively.
  89. Motor Cortex
    Part of cerebral cortex that control voluntary movement
  90. Association Cortex
    Parts of the cerebral cortex that integrate sensory and motor information and perform complex cognitive tasks
  91. Plasticity
    Property of the CNS that has the ability to strengthen neural connections at synapses, as well as to establish new connections
  92. Endocrine system
    Cells that form organs called glands and that communicate with one another by secreting hormones
  93. Glands
    Organs that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
  94. Hormones
    Chemicals secreted by glands into the bloodstream, allowing stimulation of cells that are not directly connected