PSY 499 Ch 1 & 2
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Psychologists whose research focus is analysis of the mental processes underlying judgement, decision making, problem solving, imagining, and other aspects of human though or cognition.
- Psychologists who analyze the biological factors influencing behavior and mental processes
- Also known as neuroscientists or physiological psychologists.
Psychologists who focus on people's unique characteristics
- Psychologists who seek to understand, describe, and explore how behavior and mental processes change over the course of a lifetime.
- explore area's such as the development of thought, friendship patterns, and parenting styles
Develop statistical methods for evaluating and analyzing data from psychological research.
Seek to assess, understand, modify, and prevent behavior disorders.
Study methods by which instructors teach and students learn and who apply their results improving such methods.
Test IQ, diagnose students' academic problems, and set up programs to improve student's achievements.
Study how people influence one another's behavior and attitudes, especially in groups
Study leadership, stress, competition pay and other factors that affect the efficiency productivity, and satisfaction of workers and the organizations that employ them.
Study the effects of behavior on health and the impact of illness on behavior and emotion.
- View that knowledge comes from experience and observation
- Argue that our minds are more like a blank slate on which our experiences write a lifelong story
- John Locke, George Berkley, David Hume
Awareness of external stimuli and our own mental activity.
- Founded by Titchner, who was trained by Wundt
- Study conscious experience and its structure thorough experiments and introspection.
- Founded by Max Wetheimer
- Describes organization of mental processes; "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
- Method: observation of sensory/perceptual phenomena
- Founded by Sigmund Freud
- Goal:Explain Personality and behavior; to develop techniques for treating mental disorders
- Method:Study of Individual Cases
- Founded By: William James
- Goal: Study how the mind works in allowing an organism to adapt to the environment
- Method: Naturalistic observation of animal and human behavior
- Founded By: Watson, Skinner, and Pavlov
- Goal: Study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning principles
- Method:Observation of the relationship between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses
View that behavior is the result of physical processes, especially those relating to nervous system and the brain, to hormones, and to other chemicals
Emphasizes the inherited aspects of behavior and mental process adapted for survival.
Emphasizes unconscious mental processes, usually sexual and aggressive desires, in explaining human though, feelings, and behavior.
Based on the assumption that human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned in life, especially by rewards and punishment.
View that emphasizes research on how the brain takes in information, creates perceptions, forms and retrieves memories, processes information, and generates integrated patterns of action.
- Emphasizes individual potential or growth and the role of unique perceptions in guiding behavior and mental processes.
- Carl Rogers and Maslow
Social identity and other background factors, such as gender, ethnicity, social class, and culture
Accumulation of values, rules of behavior, forms of expression, religious beliefs, and occupational choices for a group of people who share a common language and enviornment
In scientific research, a specific, testable proposition about a phenonmenon
Statements that define phenomena or variables by describing the exact research operations or methods uses in measuring or manipulating them.
Specific factors or characteristics that can take on different numerical values in research
Degree to which test results or other research evidence occurs repeatedly.
Degree to which evidence from a test or other research method measures what it is supposed to measure.
Inter grated set of propositions used to explain certain phenomena, including behavior and mental processes
Process of watching without interfering as a phenomena occurs in the natural enviorment
Research involving the intensive examination of some phenomena in a particular individual, group, or situation.
Research that involves giving people questionnaires or interviews designed to describe their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions.
Research method that examine relationships between variables in order to analyze trends, test predictions, evaluate theories, and suggest new hypothesis
- Degree to which one variable is related to another
- Positive: means that two variable increase or decrease together
- Negative: Means that the variables move in opposite directions
Situation in which the researcher manipulates one variable and observes the effects of that manipulation on another variable, while holding all other variables constant.
Variable manipulated by the researcher
Factor affected by the independent variable
Group that receives the experimental treatment
Group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which to compare the performance or response of the experimental group
Any factor that affects the dependent variable along with, or instead of, the independent variable
Uncontrolled or Uncontrollable factors that affect the dependent variable along with, or instead of, the independent variable
Procedure through which random variables are evenly distributed in an experiment by placing participants in experimental and control groups bases on random processes.
Treatment that contains no active ingredient but produces an effect because the person receiving it believes it will.
Confounding variable that occurs when an experimenter unintentionally encourages participants to respond in a way that supports that hypothesis
Research Design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is the experimental group and who is the control group
Process of selecting participants who are members of the population that the researcher wishes to study
Sample of research participants chosen from a larger population that the researcher such that their age, gender, ethnicity, and other characteristics are typical of that population
Group of research participants selected from a population each of whose members had an equal chance of being chosen.
Group of research participants selected from a population each of whose members did not have an equal chance of being chosen.
Study of how genes and environments combine to affect behavior and mental processes.
Numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis conclusions
Referring to a correlation, or a difference between two groups, that is larger than would be expected by chance
Network of billions of cells that detects what is going on inside or outside the body and guides appropriate responses.
Specialized cells of the nervous system that send and receive messages.
Specialized cells that help neurons by holding them together and helping them to communicate by directing their growth, keeping their chemical environment stable, provides energy secrete chemicals to help repair damage, and respond to signals.
- Charcterstic: Fiber extending from cell body
- Function: Carries signal away from the cell body
- Type of signal carried: Action potential
- Characteristics: Fiber extending from cell body with branches
- Function: Detects and carries signals to the cell body
- Type of signal carried: Postsynaptic potential
- Characteristics: Gap between that separates the axon of one neuron and dendrites of another
- Function: Provides and area for the transfer of signals between neurons, usually and axon and dendrite
- Type of signal carried: Chemicals cross and reach receptors of another cell
- Function:Chemical released by one cell that binds to the receptors of another cell.
- Type of signal carried: Chemical message telling the next cell to fire or not to fire its own action potential
- Function: Proteins on the cell membrane that receive chemical signals
- Type of signal carried: Recognizes certain neurotransmitters, thus allowing it to begin a postsynaptic potential in the dendrite
Electrochemical impulse or message that is send down an axon and stimulate release of a neurotransmitter
Short recovery time after cell firing, during which the cell cannot fire again
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Part of the nervous system that sends messages to and from the central nervous system
Somatic Nervous System
Subsystem of peripheral nervous system that transmits information from the SENSES to the CNS and carries signals from the CNS to the muscles that move the skeleton
Autonomic Nervous System
Subsystem of the PNS that carries messages between the CNS and the heart, lungs, and other organs and glands in the body. Activities that are independent of control
Sympathetic Nervous System
Subsystem of the automatic nervous the readies the body for stress
Subsystem of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body down and influences activities related to the protection, nourishment, and growth of the body.
Cluster of nerve cell bodies in the CNS
Bundles of axons that travel together
Part of the CNS that receives information from the senses, passes these signals to the brain, and sends messages from the brain to the body
Simple, involuntary unlearned behaviors directed by the spinal cord without instructions from the brain
Portion of the brain that lies just inside the skill and is a continuation of the spinal cord. Includes medulla, reticular formation, and cerebellum
Part of the hindbrain that regulates breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure
Collection of cells and fibers in hindbrain and midbrain that are involved in arousal and attention
Part of the hindbrain that controls finely coordinated movements
small region between the hindbrain and forebrain that, includes various nuclei and relays sensory signals to forebrain; creates automatic responses to certain stimuli initiates smooth movement
Part of the brain responsible for complex aspects of behavior and mental life; includes thalamus, hypothalamus amygdala, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and corpus callosum
Forebrain structure that interprets and relays sensory information
Forebrain structure that regulates hunger, thirst, and sex drives, with many connections to and from the autonomic nervous system and other parts of the brain
Forebrain structure that links information from various systems and plays a role in emotions; connects sensations and emotions
Forebrain structure associated with the formation of new memories
Outer surface of the forebrain; Analyzes sensory information; controls voluntary movements, abstract thinking, and other complex cognitive activity
Bundle of fibers that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres; transfers information between the two cerebral hemispheres.
Part of cerebral cortex located in the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes that receives stimulus information from the skin, eyes, ears, respectively.
Part of cerebral cortex that control voluntary movement
Parts of the cerebral cortex that integrate sensory and motor information and perform complex cognitive tasks
Property of the CNS that has the ability to strengthen neural connections at synapses, as well as to establish new connections
Cells that form organs called glands and that communicate with one another by secreting hormones
Organs that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Chemicals secreted by glands into the bloodstream, allowing stimulation of cells that are not directly connected
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