psych220 CH 12

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psych220 CH 12
2013-05-15 21:08:03

Psychology 220 Chapter 12 final notecards
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  1. Milgrams experiment
    a series of psychological experiements that measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience
  2. Stanford Prison Study
    was a study of the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or prison guard.
  3. Psychology of Evil (TED)
    Lucifer Effect
  4. Social Influence: What factors get people to do what we want?
    • Conformity
    • Compliance
    • Obedience
    • Group Behavior - Group Think
  5. Social Influence: Conformity
    changing one's own behavior to match that of other people
  6. Social Influence: Compliance
    changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change
  7. What are four ways to gain compliance?
    • Foot-in-the-door technique
    • Door-in-the-face technique
    • Lowball technique
    • That's-not-all technique
  8. Compliance: Foot-in-the-door technique
    asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment
  9. Compliance: Door-in-the-face technique
    asking for a large commitment and being refused, and then asking for a smaller commitment
  10. Compliance: Door-in-the-face technique [Norm of Reciprocity]
    assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return
  11. Compliance: Lowball technique
    getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment
  12. Compliance: That's-not-all-technique
    a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision
  13. Social Influence: Obedience
    changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure
  14. Social Influence: Group Behavior - Group Think
    people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem
  15. Social Influence: Prejudice
    negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group
  16. How do people learn prejudice?
    • Social Identity Theory
    • Stereotype vulnerability
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy
    • Scapegoating
    • Realistic Conflict Theory
  17. Prejudice: Social Identity Theory
    • Social identity is a person’s sense of who they are based on their group membership(s) with the ideal to gain a better self-image within this group.
    • Based on the separation into groups, this leads to a thinking of "us" and "them" or "in-group" and "out-group" respectively.
    • Social identity theory states that the
    • in-group will discriminate against the out-group to enhance their self-image.
  18. Prejudice: Stereotype vulnerability
    refers to the apprehension experienced by members of a minority group that they might behave in a manner that confirms an existing cultural stereotype
  19. Prejudice: Self-fulfilling prophecy
    • a positive or negative prophecy, strongly held belief, or delusion that is declared as truth when it is actually false - may sufficiently
    • influence people so that their reactions ultimately fulfill the
    • once-false prophecy.
  20. Prejudice: Scapegoating
    the practice of singling out an individual or group to place the blame on receive unmerited negative treatment
  21. Prejudice: Realistic Conflict Theory
    theory explains how intergroup hostility can arise as a result of conflicting goals and competition over limited resources as well as offers an explanation for the feelings of prejudice and discrimination toward the outgroup that accompany the intergroup hostility
  22. Social Influence: Discrimination
    treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong
  23. Blue-eyed/Brown-eyed study
    • an experiment by Jane Elliot that separated the class into 2 groups and that one was considered superior over the other and were given additional privileges because of it. Later, the groups were switched for and then ended with a discussion.
    • The lesson was to help the children experience firsthand prejudice and discrimination.
  24. Why do people not help others?
    Bystander effect
  25. Bystander effect
    referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases
  26. Bystander Effect - Diffusion of responsibility
    occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility
  27. Researchers found that people who were (1)______ were (2)_______ likely to help in an emergency than people who were (3)_________.
    • 1. alone
    • 2. more
    • 3. with others
  28. How many bystanders cannot diffuse responsibility?
  29. Diffusion of Responsibility: What are the 5 steps in making a decision to help?
    • 1. Noticing
    • 2. Defining an emergency
    • 3. Taking responsibility
    • 4. Planning a course of action
    • 5. Taking action