psych220 CH 12
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a series of psychological experiements that measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience
Stanford Prison Study
was a study of the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or prison guard.
Psychology of Evil (TED)
Social Influence: What factors get people to do what we want?
- Group Behavior - Group Think
Social Influence: Conformity
changing one's own behavior to match that of other people
Social Influence: Compliance
changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change
What are four ways to gain compliance?
- Foot-in-the-door technique
- Door-in-the-face technique
- Lowball technique
- That's-not-all technique
Compliance: Foot-in-the-door technique
asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment
Compliance: Door-in-the-face technique
asking for a large commitment and being refused, and then asking for a smaller commitment
Compliance: Door-in-the-face technique [Norm of Reciprocity]
assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return
Compliance: Lowball technique
getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment
a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision
Social Influence: Obedience
changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure
Social Influence: Group Behavior - Group Think
people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem
Social Influence: Prejudice
negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group
How do people learn prejudice?
- Social Identity Theory
- Stereotype vulnerability
- Self-fulfilling prophecy
- Realistic Conflict Theory
Prejudice: Social Identity Theory
- Social identity is a person’s sense of who they are based on their group membership(s) with the ideal to gain a better self-image within this group.
- Based on the separation into groups, this leads to a thinking of "us" and "them" or "in-group" and "out-group" respectively.
- Social identity theory states that the
- in-group will discriminate against the out-group to enhance their self-image.
Prejudice: Stereotype vulnerability
refers to the apprehension experienced by members of a minority group that they might behave in a manner that confirms an existing cultural stereotype
Prejudice: Self-fulfilling prophecy
- a positive or negative prophecy, strongly held belief, or delusion that is declared as truth when it is actually false - may sufficiently
- influence people so that their reactions ultimately fulfill the
- once-false prophecy.
the practice of singling out an individual or group to place the blame on receive unmerited negative treatment
Prejudice: Realistic Conflict Theory
theory explains how intergroup hostility can arise as a result of conflicting goals and competition over limited resources as well as offers an explanation for the feelings of prejudice and discrimination toward the outgroup that accompany the intergroup hostility
Social Influence: Discrimination
treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong
- an experiment by Jane Elliot that separated the class into 2 groups and that one was considered superior over the other and were given additional privileges because of it. Later, the groups were switched for and then ended with a discussion.
- The lesson was to help the children experience firsthand prejudice and discrimination.
Why do people not help others?
referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases
Bystander Effect - Diffusion of responsibility
occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility
Researchers found that people who were (1)______ were (2)_______ likely to help in an emergency than people who were (3)_________.
- 1. alone
- 2. more
- 3. with others
How many bystanders cannot diffuse responsibility?
Diffusion of Responsibility: What are the 5 steps in making a decision to help?
- 1. Noticing
- 2. Defining an emergency
- 3. Taking responsibility
- 4. Planning a course of action
- 5. Taking action
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