A & P Ch.6 Skeletal System terms

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A & P Ch.6 Skeletal System terms
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2013-05-21 21:04:48
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Ch. 6 Skeletal System terms
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  1. Abduction
    Moving a body part away from the midline
  2. Adduction
    Moving a body part toward the midline of the body
  3. Appendicular skeleton
    The bones of the shoulders, arms, hips, and legs
  4. Arthritis
    Inflammation of the joints
  5. Arthroscopy
    The endoscopic examination of the interior region of the joint
  6. Arthroscope
    An instrument used to view a joint
  7. Articulation
    A joint where two bones come together and join or articulate
  8. Axial Skeleton
    The bones of the head , chest, and back.
  9. Bursa
    Fluid-filled sac that decreases friction where a tendon rubs against a bone near a synovial joint
  10. Bursitis
    Inflammation of the bursa, resulting in joint swelling and pain
  11. Cancellous bone or Spongy
    Found in the epiphyses of the long bones. Its spaces are filled with red bone marrow that makes blood cells
  12. Cartilage
    Smooth, firm, but flexible, connective-tissue
  13. Cartilaginous joints
    Joints that are held together by cartliage disks, which are either immovable, or slightly movable, ex. pubic symphisis and the joints btwn your ribs and sternum
  14. Cervical
    Pertaining to the region of the neck
  15. Chondrosarcoma
    Cancer of the cartilage
  16. Circumduction
    The combination of movements to create a circular arm movement similar to a softball pitch
  17. Closed reduction
    The setting of bone into proper alignment without opening of the skin
  18. Compact bone
    Hard or dense bone forming the superficial layer of all bones
  19. Diaphysis
    Th straight shaft of a long bone
  20. Dorsiflexion
    Movement occurring when the foot is bent up toward the leg
  21. Endochondral ossification
    A process in which shaped cartilage is replaced by bone
  22. Endosteum
    Lining of the spongy bone
  23. Epiphyseal plate (growth plate)
    The growth plate
  24. Epiphysis
    The widened ends of a long bone. Each contain the epiphyseal plate where bone growth takes place
  25. Extension
    Straightening a joint to increase the angle between two bones or body parts
  26. Eversion
    Turning outward of the feet so that toes point away
  27. Fibrous joints
    Joints located on your skull that allow for minimal flexing
  28. Flexion
    Bending of a joint to decrease the angle between two bones or body parts.
  29. Fontanel
    "soft spots" found in new born skulls
  30. Fracture/s
    Hairline- A fine bone fracture thst resembles a hair on the x-ray

    Simple or closed- It is a bone break without a puncture

    Spiral- A bone break caused by a severe twist

    Greenstick- An incomplete  bone break, usually found in children who have softer more pliable bones

    Comminuted- A bone that is crushed to the point that it becomes fragmented or splintered

    Compound or open-  A fracture that is pushed through the skin
  31. Gout
    Disease caused by excessive uric acid in the blood that is deposited in the joints, producing inflammation and pain
  32. Haversian Canal or Osteons
    Tightly packed bone that forms microscopic cylindrical-shaped units
  33. Hematoma or blood clot
    A swellling as a result of a break in the blood vessel (s) usually confined to a specific area (tissue, organ, or space) in the body
  34. Hemopoiesis
    Formation of blood cells
  35. Herniated Disk
    Common disorder in older patients where the soft central position of the intervertebral disk is forced through its outer covering
  36. Hyperextension
    The forced straightening of a joint beyond its normal limits
  37. Intramembraneous ossification
    Bone development between two sheets composed of fibrous connective tissue such as found in the skull
  38. Intervertebral disks
    Cartilage pads that separate vertebrae
  39. Inversion
    The movement of the sole of a foot toward the other foot
  40. Joints
    Area where two bones come together
  41. Joint dislocation
    The movement of a joint out of its normal position
  42. Kyphosis
    An exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine, also known as humpback, hunchback, or Pott's curvature
  43. Ligament
    Fibrous bands that holds two bones together
  44. Lordosis
    An anteroposterior curvature of the spine (backward bending)
  45. Lumbar
    Lower back
  46. Manubrium
    The superior portion of the sternum
  47. Medullary cavity or Medullary Canal
    Hollow region in the bone that stores bone marrow
  48. Monocyte
    Mononuclear white blood cells commonly found in high numbers in chronic infections
  49. Oral Cavity or mouth
    Common passageway for both the digestive and respiratory systems
  50. Osseous tissue
    Bone, a type of connective tissue
  51. Ossification or Osteogensis
    Process by which cartilaginous tissue is changed into bone frominfancy through puberty.
  52. Osteoprogenitor
    Non-specialized cells that can become specialized (differentiate) when needed
  53. Osteoporosis
    Condition of increased  bone porosity that weakens the bones, usually seen in the elderly
  54. Osteoarthritis
    Chronic inflammatory disease of the joints, particulary the large weight- bearing joints of the knees and hips, although it often occurs in joints that move repeatedly like the shoulders, neck, and hands.
  55. Osteocytes
    Mature bone cells surrounded by bone matrix. They maintain the matrix in mature bones
  56. Osteomalacia
    Abnormal softening of the bones due to a deficiency of vitamin D. Chondromalacia is abnormal softening of the cartilage, specifically of the patella
  57. Osteons
    Microscopic units of compact bone
  58. Periosteum
    Thick, fibrous membrane that goes around and covers the outside of the bone
  59. Phalanges
    Bones of the fingers
  60. Plantar flexion
    Movement of the foot away from the leg as a ballerina who dances on her toes
  61. Primary ossification center
    A region where osteoblasts congregate to create spongy bone
  62. Pronation
    Turning of the hands so that the palms faces downward
  63. Protraction
    Movement of the body part forward
  64. Retraction
    Drawing backward of a body part
  65. R.I.C.E.
    • Rest
    • Ice for 48 hours
    • Compression of the injury with an elastic wrap
    • Elevation of the sprain area above the heart
  66. Rheumatoid arthritis
    Chronic, systemic disease that is believed to be an autoimmune condition affecting the connective tissue of the body
  67. Rotation
    Occurs when a bone spins on its axis
  68. Sacral
    Referring to the five fused vertebra in the mod-buttock area
  69. Scoliosis
    Lateral curvature of the spine
  70. Septic arthritis
    A form of joint inflammation due to infection
  71. Set (reduced)
    The act of putting fractured bones in alignment so the ends meet
  72. Sternum or breastbone
    Vertical bone of the anterior thorax to which the clavical and ribs are attached. Also known as the breastbone
  73. Spinal column
    A series of connected vertebrae that protect the spinal cord
  74. Sprain
    Overstretching or tearing of a ligament
  75. Supination
    The turning of the hand so that the palm faces upward
  76. Surgical or open
    A more complex setting of bone that may require pins, screws, plates, or other hardware to fix the bone fragments in place
  77. Synovial joints
    Joints, such as the knee, that have synovial fluid as a lubricant
  78. Synovial fluid
    Clear, lubricating fluid that is secreted by the synovial membrane
  79. Synovial Joints
    Pivot-(which act like a turnstlie) have a circular position of one bone that spins inside a ring-shape portion of the other bone. Found in necj and forearm. They can only rotate

    Ball and socket-Consists of a spherical bone. articulating with a cup shaped socket on the other bone. Found in hips and shoulders. Allows for the greatest movement.

    Hinge-Found in the knees and elbows. One bone is in the shape of a cylinder and the other a trough. can eithe open or close.

    Glinding- are the flat , or slightly curved, platelike bones found in your wrists and ankles. Slide back & forth.

    Saddle- Have a bone shaped just like a saddle and another bone similar a horses back. found in the base of the thumb. Rock up and down and side to side.

    Ellipsodial (condolyloid)-Provide two axes of movement through the same bone, like the joints formed at the wrist with both the radius and ulna. Ex,. knuckles of your fingers
  80. Suture lines
    Fibrous connective tissue joints that hold the bony plates of the skull together
  81. Tail bone (coccyx)
    The final 3-5 bones at the interior end of the spinal column
  82. Tendonitis
    Inflammation of any tendon from injury or overuse
  83. Tendons
    Cordlike, white band of nonelastic fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to bone
  84. Thoracic cavity
    Hollow space within the thorax that is filled with the lungs, heart,  and related structures in the mediastinum
  85. Torn rotator cuff
    Injury involving the shoulder.The group of muscles that hold the head of the humerus into the shoulder socket.
  86. Trabeculae
    A thin bone strip used as a support structure in spongy bone
  87. Traction
    Use of weights to hold broken bones in place for proper healing
  88. Vertebrae
    One of 33 irregular shaped bony segements of the spinal column
  89. Vertebrocostal ribs
    Referring to the false rib pairs 8-10 and their points of attachment
  90. Xiphoid
    The inferior portion of the sternum

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