psych220 CH 13

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psych220 CH 13
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Psychology 220 Chapter 13 final notecards
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  1. What are the four perspectives in Study of Personality?
    • Psychoanalytic
    • Behavioristic (including social cognitive theory)
    • Humanistic
    • Trait Perspective
  2. What is the 3, 3, 5 theory of personality of Freud?
    • 3 Divisions of Consciousness
    • 3 Parts of Personality
    • 5 Psychosexual Stages
  3. What are the 3 Divisions of Consciousness?
    • Preconscious mind
    • Conscious mind
    • Unconscious mind
  4. 3 Divisions of Consciousness: Preconscious mind
    information is available but not currently conscious
  5. 3 Divisions of Consciousness: Conscious mind
    aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions
  6. 3 Divisions of Consciousness: Unconscious mind
    thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness
  7. Parts of Personality (Freud): Id
    part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious
  8. Parts of Personality (Freud): The Id operates according to the________.
    Pleasure Principle
  9. Parts of Personality (Freud): What is the Pleasure Principle?
    • principle by which the id functions
    • the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse
    • seeks to avoid pain or unpleasure
  10. Parts of Personality (Freud): The id contains ______ the primal sexuality and pursuit of sensual gratification driving human behavior.
    libido
  11. Parts of Personality (Freud): Ego
    part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical.
  12. Parts of Personality (Freud): The ego's control of the pleasure-seeking activity of the id in order to meet the demands of the external world is known as the __________.
    reality principle
  13. Parts of Personality (Freud): Superego
    part of the personality that acts as a moral center
  14. Parts of Personality (Freud): What are the two parts of the superego?
    • Ego ideal
    • Conscience
  15. Parts of Personality (Freud): Ego ideal
    part of the superego that contains standards for moral behavior
  16. Parts of Personality (Freud): Conscience
    part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the superego
  17. Psychological defense mechanisms
    unconscious distortions of a person's perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety
  18. What are examples of psychological defense mechanisms?
    • Denial
    • Repression
    • Rationalization
    • Projection
  19. Freud's Psychosexual stages
    five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child
  20. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Oral Stage
    • first stage occurring in the first year of life
    • the mouth is the erogenous zone
    • conflict: weaning (off oral behaviors: bottle, binkie, thumb sucking, etc.)
    • id dominated
  21. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Oral Fixation
    can result when a child is weaned to soon or to late
  22. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Anal Stage
    • 1 - 3 years
    • anus is the erogenous zone
    • conflict: toilet training
    • ego develops
  23. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Anal expulsive personality
    fixated in the anal stage and is messy, destructive, and hostile
  24. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Anal retentive personality
    fixated in the anal stage and is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn
  25. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Phallic stage
    • third stage
    • ~ age 3 - 6 years
    • the child discovers sexual feelings
    • superego develops
  26. Freud's Psychosexual stages: Oedipus complex
    situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a male child develops a sexual attraction to his mother and jealousy towards his father
  27. Freud's Psychosexual stages: What is the Oedipus complex for female children?
    Electra Complex
  28. Freud's Psychosexual stages: Latency
    • fourth stage
    • occurs during the school years
    • the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways
  29. Freud's Psychosexual stages: Genital
    sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets
  30. Modern Psychoanalytic Theory: Current research has found support for what two parts of Freud's theory?
    • Defense mechanisms
    • Concept of an unconscious mind that can influence conscious behavior
  31. Behaviorism and Personality
    define personality as a set of learned responses or habits
  32. Behaviorism: What are habits?
    sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic
  33. Behaviorism: How is personality shaped from a Behaviorist's point of view?
    based on learned patterns directly (positive/negative reinforcement) or indirectly (observation/modeling)
  34. Behaviorism: Social Cognitive Learning Theorists
    importance of both the influences of other people's behaviors and of a person's own expectancies on learning
  35. Behaviorism: Social Cognitive View
    learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of models
  36. Behaviorism: Reciprocal Determinism
    Bandura's explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior
  37. Behaviorism: Self-efficacy
    individual's perception of how effective a behavior will be in any particular circumstance (NOT the same as self-esteem)
  38. Humanism: Perspective
    the "third force" in psychology that focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice
  39. Humanism: How was this perspective developed?
    as a reaction against the negativity of psychoanalysis and the deterministic nature of behaviorism
  40. Humanism: Maslow and Rogers Main characteristics
  41. Measuring Personality: Projective Tests
    personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind
  42. Measuring Personality: Rorschach Inkblot Test
    projective test that uses 10 inkblots as the ambiguous stimuli
  43. Measuring Personality: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    projective test that uses 20 pictures of people in ambiguous situations as the visual stimuli
  44. Rorschach or Thematic Apperception Test?
    Thematic Apperception Test
  45. Rorschach or Thematic Apperception Test?
    Rorschach Inkblot Test

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