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a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce tension
approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises psychological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal
- the drives that involve the needs of the body
- e.g., hunger or thirst
Acquired (Secondary) Drive
- drives that are learned through experience or conditioning
- e.g., money or social approval
a requirement of some material (water or food) that is essential for survival of the organism
What are the three needs?
- Need for Achievement
- Need for Affiliation
- Need for Power
Need for Achievement
the need that involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals, not only realistic ones, but challenging ones
Need for Affiliation
the need for friendly social interactions and relationships with others
Need for Power
the need to have control and or influence over others
the biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exists in both people and animals
an approach to motivation that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those of animals
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
proposed that humans must fulfill the more basic needs, such as physical and security needs, before being able to fulfill the higher needs of self-actualization and transcendence
Overall children preferred the taste of food items that were (1)______ as compared to (2)_____ packaging.
- 1. presented with cartoon characters
- 2. blank
Although (1)_________ were not enough to influence taste preferences, children were more likely to choose (2)_________ with (3)_________ as compared to those in (4) _______ packaging.
- 1. character stickers
- 2. baby carrots
- 3. character stickers
- 4. blank
What are the three elements of emotion?
- a certain physical arousal
- a certain behavior that reveals the feeling to the outside world
- an inner awareness of that feeling
How do the James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories differ?
- JL - a stimulus leads to a bodily arousal first, which is then interpreted as an emotion
- CB - a stimulus leads activity to the brain, which then sends signals to arouse the body and interpret the emotion at the SAME time
Angry/Happy Man Experiment
- Same man in each group either tears up questionnaire and storms out or happy, giddy and played with objects in the room.
- Afterwards, participants were asked to complete their questionnaire.
Angry/Happy Man Results
Exposed to Angry Man - interpreted their arousal symptoms as anger
Exposure to Happy Man - interpreted their arousal as happiness
Angry/Happy Man - In all cases, the actual cause of arousal was the (1)______ and the (2)_______ symptoms of arousal were (3)______.
- 1. epinephrine
- 2. physical
- 3. identical
Angry/Happy Man - The only difference between the two groups of participants was the exposure to ___________________.
two different contexts.
Angry/Happy Man - (1)_________ arousal has to be interpreted (2)__________before it is experienced as a (3) ________ emotion.
- 1. Physiological
- 2. cognitively
- 3. specific