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  1. Cognition
    refers to awareness, thinking, perceiving, interpreting, remembering, believing and anticipating
  2. Influence of Cognition - Content
    the appraisal of ourselves and others, the external world and our interpretation of events
  3. Influence of Cognition - Process
    the degree of flexibility we have in switching between different modes of thinking
  4. Three Levels of Cognition
    • - Perception
    • - Interpretation
    • - Beliefs and Desires
  5. Three Levels of Cognition - Perception
    process of imposing order on information received by our sense organs
  6. Three Levels of Cognition - Interpretation
    process of making sense of or explaining events in the world
  7. Three Levels of Cognition - Beliefs and Desires
    standards and goals people develop for evaluating themselves and others
  8. Kelly's Personal Construct Theory
    psychology is an attempt to set in order the facts of human experience so that the psychologist can make good predictions about what people will do when confronted by new situations.
  9. Kelly's Personal Construct Theory - Human Nature
    people attempt to understand, predict, and control events; humans-as-scientists
  10. Kelly's Personal Construct Theory - Personal Constructs
    constructs person uses to interpret and predict events
  11. Post-modernism
    an intellectual position grounded in the notion that reality is construct; every person and culture has a unique version of reality with none having privilege
  12. Kelly's Personal Construct Theory - Fundamental Postulate
    "A person's processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events"
  13. Kelly's Personal Construct Theory - Commonality Corolary
    if two people have similar construct systems, they will be psychologically similar
  14. Kelly's Personal Construct Theory - Sociality Corollary
    to understand a person, one must understand how he/she construes the social world
  15. Locus of Control
    describes person's interpretation of responsibility for events
  16. External Locus of Control
    generalized expectancies that events are outside of one's control
  17. Internal Locus of Control
    generalized expectancies that reinforcing events are under one's control and that one is responsible for major life outcomes
  18. Rotter's "Expectancy Model" of Learning Behavior
    - learning depends on the degree to which a person values a reinforcer

    - people differ in their expectations of reinforcement

    - the expectancy of reinforcement refers to characteristics that distinguish specific individuals
  19. Learned Helplessness
    condition of a human or animal that has learned to behave helplessly, failing to respond even though there are opportunities for it to help itself by avoiding unpleasant circumstances or by gaining positive rewards
  20. Learned Helplessness - Explanatory Style
    tendency to use certain attributional categories when explaining causes of events
  21. Learned Helplessness - Explanatory Style Attributions
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    • external or internal
    • stable or unstable
    • global or specific
  22. Learned Helplessness - Pessimistic Explanatory Style
    • - emphasizes internal, stable, and global causes for negative events
    • - associated with feelings of helplessness and poor adjustment
  23. Three Components of Emotions
    • associated with distinct subjective feelings or affects
    • accompanied by bodily changes, mostly in the nervous system
    • accompanied by distinct action tendencies (increases in probabilities of certain behaviors)
  24. Emotional States
    transitory, depend more on the situation than on a specific person
  25. Emotional Traits
    pattern of emotional reactions that a person consistently experiences across a variety of life situations
  26. Primary Emotions
    • Anger
    • Disgust
    • Fear
    • Happiness
    • Sadness
    • Surprise
  27. Primary Emotions and their Criteria
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  28. Activation Levels and Emotions
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  29. Content of Emotions Life
    refers to the specific kinds of emotions that a person experiences
  30. Style of Emotional Life
    refers to how emotions are experienced
  31. Pleasant Emotions - Happiness and Life Satisfaction
    happiness is defined in 2 ways:

    • 1. judgement that life is satisfying
    • 2. predominance of positive relative to negative emotions
  32. Personality and Well-Being - Indirect Model
    personality causes a person to create a certain lifestyle, and lifestyle causes emotional reactions
  33. Personality and Well-Being - Direct Model
    personality causes emotional reactions
  34. Unpleasant Emotions - Neuroticism
    • these people are moody, touchy, irritable, anxious, unstable, pessimistic, and complaining
    • caused by styles of information processing negative to the self
    • unpleasant material is more accessible in memories
  35. Depression - Diathesis-Stress Model
    stressful life event triggers depression among those with pre-existing vulnerability, or diathesis
  36. Depression - Beck's Cognitive Theory
    • certain cognitive style is a pre-existing condition that makes people vulnerable to depression
    • vulnerability lies in the particular cognitive schema(way of looking at the world)
  37. Depression - Beck's Cognitive Theory Triad
    • information about the self
    • information about the world
    • information about the future
  38. Factors that play a role in Depression
    • genetic factors
    • abnormalities in the brain
    • learned helplessness
    • negative view of oneself
    • rumination
  39. Cycle of Depression
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  40. Cognitive Therapy
    • a focused form of psychotherapy based on modifying a model stipulating that psychiatric disorders involve dysfunctional thinking(from both biological and psychological influences) to improve symptoms
    • an individuals' emotional, behavioral, and physiological reactions are influenced by the way they structure their environment
  41. Cognitive Specificity Hypothesis
    distorted appraisals follow themes relevant to the specific psychiatric condition
  42. Depression
    negative view of self, others, and future. core beliefs associated with helplessness, failure, incompetence, and unlovability
  43. Anxiety
    overestimation of physical and psychological threats. core beliefs linked with risk, dangerousness, and uncontrolability
  44. Psychopathology
    patterns of thought, emotions, and behavior, that are maladaptive, disruptive, or uncomfortable both for the person affected and those around them
  45. Abnormality - The Four D's
    • Deviance
    • Distress
    • Dysfunction
    • Danger
  46. Personality Disorder
    - enduring rigid pattern of experience and behavior that differs greatly from expectations of a person's culture that is displayed across a variety of life situations

    • - is manifested in more than one of the following:
    • 1. thoughts
    • 2. feelings
    • 3. how a person gets along with others
    • 4. ability to control own behavior
  47. Clinical Features of Personality Disorders
    • pervasive and inflexible behavior patterns
    • stable and of long duration
    • clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning
    • manifested in at least two areas
    • often cause significant problems in lives of others
  48. Personality Disorders - Categorical View
    disorders are viewed as distinct and qualitatively different from normal extremes on some trait

    - either the person does or does not have a personality disorder
  49. Personality Disorders - Dimensional View
    personality disorder is viewed as a continuum that ranges from normality to severe disability; people with/without the disorder differ in degree only
  50. Clinical Features of Personality Disorders - Cluster A
    • paranoid
    • schizoid
    • schizotypal
  51. Clinical Features of Personality Disorders - Cluster B
    • histrionic
    • narcissistic
    • antisocial
    • borderline
  52. Clinical Features of Personality Disorders - Cluster C
    • avoidant
    • dependent
    • obsessive-compulsive
  53. Difficulties in Diagnosing Personality Disorders
    • diagnostic criteria are not as sharply defined as for other Axis I categories and are not mutually exclusive
    • personality characteristics are not dimensional in nature
    • personality characteristics are dimensional in nature
  54. Erratic Group
    persons with these disorders appear erratic, emotional, and have difficulties getting along with others (antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic)
  55. Antisocial Personality Disorder
    • lack of moral or ethical development
    • inability to follow approved models of behavior
    • deceitfulness
    • shameless manipulation of others
    • history of conduct problems as a child
  56. Borderline Personality Disorder
    involves impulsiveness, inappropriate anger, drastic mood shifts, chronic feelings of boredom, and attempts at self-mutilation or suicide

    Causal Factors: genetics, neurotransmitters, traumatic events
  57. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    involves grandiosity, preoccupation with receiving attention, self-promoting, and lack of empathy
  58. Histrionic Personality Disorder
    involves self-dramatization, over-concern with attractiveness, and irritability and temper outbursts if attention seeking is frustrated
Card Set:
2013-05-16 07:17:44
psychology personality

study cards for chapters 12,13,14 & 19
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