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How do painkillers work?
Blocking pain impulses getting to the brain.
Which type of drug slows down brain activity and slows reactions?
Depressants e.g. alcohol
Which type of drug speeds up reactions?
Stimulants e.g. Caffeine
What do Hallucinogens do?
Change what a person sees or hears. e.g. LSD
Name the 3 dangerous chemicals in tobacco smoke.
- Carbon Monoxide - reduces the amount of oxygen the blood can carry
- Tar - contains chemicals called carcinogens which can lead to cancer
- Nicotine - is addictive
Give some short term effects of alcohol
- Lows inhibitions
- Slows reactions
- Blurs vision
Give some long term effects of alcohol.
- Cirrhosis - Liver disease
- Liver cancer
- Brain damage
Why might an alcoholic not be given a liver transplant.
Because their is a shortage of donors so some people beleive if they have harmed thier own organs they should not organs before people who haven't. Others believe they should change their ways then be given a transplant
What is a pathogen?
A microorganism (such as a bacteria, fungi or virus) that causes disease.
Give 6 ways in which infectious disease can be spread.
- Body Fluids
- Animal Vectors
What is a vector?
An aminal that spreads disease e.g. mosquitos spread malaria and houseflys spread dysentery
What is the bodys most effective barrier against disease?
The skin- Won't let pathogens through and if it becomes broken it clots quickly to prevent disease
How is the respiratory tract protected from infection?
- Mucus - traps dust and bacteria before they enter the lungs
- Cilia - Move the mucus up away from the lungs
How to the eyes protect themselves from disease?
Contain a chemical called lysozyme which kills bacteria
How are bacteria on food food killed by the stomach?
How do plants protect themselves from disease?
They produce chemicals which have antibacterial effects.
Name chemical which are used to clean surfaces kill bacteria and prevent them from spreading.
What is an antibiotic?
A drug used to treat bacterial infections.
What is a producer?
An organism which makes its own food using energy from the sun. Often are plants.
Energy transfers through food chains are not 100% efficient. What happpens to the energy that is not transfered to the next organism in the chain?
Respiratory losses such as heat and movement. Waste (faeces and urine).
What does a pyramid of biomass show?
The amount of energy at each stage of a food chain.
What is a parasite?
An organism that lives on another (host) that gets what it needs to survive by living there but does not benefit the host. e.g. fleas, headlice, tapeworms and mistletoe.
What is a mutalist?
When two organisms benefit from each other. e.g. Oxpeckers and cleaner fish.
Why is an increasing population a problem?
- Raw material such as fossil fuels are being used up.
- Increased waste
- More pollutants
How can we reduce waste?
Recycling of metals plastics and paper
What happens when nitrates get into rivers, lakes and seas?
Summarise the stages of eutrophication.
- Nitrates get into water.
- Nitrates cause rapid growth of algae on the surface.
- Little sunlight gets to plants below the surface.
- Plants below die.
- Decomposers breakdown dead plant material and use the oxygen respiring
- No oxygen left so fish die.
What is an indicator species?
Indicator species are living organisms that can be used to show the level of pollution in an area due to which species grow there.
What pollution indicators can be used in water?
- Stonefly larvae and freshwater shrimps live in clean unpolluted water.
- Blood worms and sludgeworms live in polluted water.
What pollutant is lichens sensitive to?
Sulphur Dioxide. Some lichens live in high levels of sulphur dioxide whereas others live in low levels.
When do you find blackspot fungus on roses?
In unpolluted clean air.
How can Carbon Dioxide be removed from the air during the carbon cycle?
If dead plants and animals do not decay properly what can happen?
They form fossil fuels.
What breaks down dead plant and animal material?
When plants and animals respire they produce which gas?