A&P 1lab

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mrsbotelloj
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219927
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A&P 1lab
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2013-05-27 17:32:54
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first lab practical study questions
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  1. gross anatomy:
    study of body structures visible to the naked eye
  2. anatomical position
    • standard position,
    • the body is erect
    • feet only slightly apart
    • head and toes pointed forward
    • arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward
  3. t/f:
    In anatomical position, the body is recumbent (lying down)
    False
  4. With regard to the surface anatomy, ___ refers to the division relating to the head, neck, and trunk of the body
    axial
  5. the term superficial  refers to a structure that is:
    toward or at the bodys surface
  6. The ____ plane runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left parts.
    sagittal
  7. The dorsal cavity can be divided into the ____ cavity, which contains the brain, and the ____ cavity, which contains the spinal cord
    • cranial
    • vertebral
  8. which organ would you expect to find in the thoracic cavity surrounded by the pericardium?
    heart
  9. what are the two major divisions of the body:
    axial: relating to the head, neck, and trunk, the axis of the body

    appendicular: relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis
  10. name the anterior body landmarks
    • abdominal
    • acromial
    • antebrachial
    • antecubital
    • axillary
    • brachial
    • buccal
    • carpal
    • cephalic
    • cervical
    • coxal
    • crural
    • digital
    • femoral
    • fibular (peroneal)
    • frontal
    • hallux
    • inguinal
    • mammary
    • manus
    • mental
    • nasal
    • oral
    • orbital
    • palmar
    • patellar
    • pedal
    • pelvic
    • pollex
    • public
    • sternal 
    • tarsal
    • thoracic
    • umbilical
  11. posterior body landmarks
    • acromial
    • brachial
    • calcaneal
    • cephalic
    • dorsum
    • femoral
    • gluteal
    • lumbar
    • manus
    • occipital
    • olecranal
    • otic
    • pedal
    • perineal
    • plantar
    • popliteal
    • sacral
    • scapular
    • sural
    • vertebral
  12. what region does the abdominal area cover and what is it landmark?
    pertaining to the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
  13. what does the acromial area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the point of the shoulder
    • anterior and posterior landmarks
  14. what does the antebrachial area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the forearm
    • anterior
  15. what does the antecubital area cover and what is its landmark?
    pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
  16. what does the axillary area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the armpit
    • anterior
  17. what does the brachial area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the arm
    • anterior and posterior
  18. what does the buccal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the cheek
    • anterior
  19. what does the carpal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the wrist
    • anterior
  20. what does the cephalic area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the head
    • anterior and posterior
  21. what does the cervical area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the neck region
    • anterior
  22. what does the coxal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the hip
    • anterior
  23. what does the crural area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the leg
    • anterior
  24. what does the digital area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the fingers or toes
    • anterior
  25. what does the femoral area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the thigh
    • anterior and posterior
  26. what does the fibular (peroneal) area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the sides of the leg
    • anterior
  27. what does the frontal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the forehead
    • anterior
  28. what does the hallux area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the great toe
    • anterior
  29. what does the inguinal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the groin
    • anterior
  30. what is the mammary area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the breast
    • anterior
  31. what does the manus area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the hand
    • anterior and posterior
  32. what does the mental area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the chin
    • anterior
  33. what does the nasal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the nose
    • anterior
  34. what is the oral area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the mouth
    • anterior
  35. what does the orbital area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the bony eye socket (orbit)
    • anterior
  36. what does the patellar area cover and what is its landmark?
    pertaining to the anterior knee (kneecap) region
  37. what does the palmar area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the mouth
    • anterior
  38. what does the pedal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the foot
    • anterior and posterior
  39. what does the pelvic area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the pelvis region
    • anterior
  40. what does the pollex area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the thumb
    • anterior
  41. what does the pubic area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the genital region
    • anterior
  42. what does the sternal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the region of the breastbone
    • anterior
  43. what does the tarsal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the ankle
    • anterior
  44. what does the thoracic area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the chest
    • anterior
  45. what does the umbilical area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the naval
    • anterior
  46. what does the calcaneal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the heel of the foot
    • posterior
  47. what does the dorsum area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the back
    • posterior
  48. what does the gluteal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the buttocks or rump
    • posterior
  49. what does the lumbar area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
    • posterior
  50. what does the occipital area cover and what is its landmark?
    pertaining to the posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull
  51. what does the olecranal area cover and what is its landmark?
    pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow
  52. what does the otic area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the ear
    • posterior
  53. what does the perineal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia
    • posterior
  54. what does the plantar area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the sole of the foot
    • posterior
  55. what does the popliteal area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the back of the knee
    • posterior
  56. what does the sacral area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
    • posterior
  57. what does the scapular area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the scapula or shoulder blade area
    • posterior
  58. what does the sural area cover and what is its landmark?
    pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg
  59. what does the vertebral area cover and what is its landmark?
    • pertaining to the area of the spinal column
    • posterior
  60. explain the body orientation and direction of superior/inferior and give examples
    • above/below
    • along the long axis of the body
    • superior appear above other structures
    • inferior appear below  other structures
    • example: the nose is superior to the mouth and the abdomen is inferior to the chest
  61. explain the body orientation and direction of anterior/posterior and give examples
    • front/back
    • anterior are structures that are most forward, example: chest, face, and abdomen
    • posterior are structures that are toward the backside of the body
    • example: the spine is posterior to the heart
  62. explain the body orientation and direction of medial/lateral and give examples
    • toward the midline/away from the midline or median plane
    • example: the sternum (breastbone) is medial to the ribs, the ear is lateral to the nose
  63. what is cephalad (cranial)/caudal position
    • toward the head/toward the tail
    • in humans, u can use these interchangeably with superior/inferior
    • in animals, they are synonymous with anterior/posterior
  64. what is dorsal/ventral position?
    • backside/belly side
    • assume animal is standing
    • dorsum is latin for back,therefore dorsal refers to animals backside
    • example: the posterior surface of the human leg is its dorsal surface
    • ventral is latin for belly (venter)
    • in humans, the terms ventral/dorsal are interchangeable with anterior/posterior
    • in animals, it is interchangeable with inferior/superior
  65. what is proximal/distal position?
    • nearer the trunk or attached end/farther from the trunk or point of attachement
    • used to locate body limbs
    • example: the fingers are distal to the elbow
    • the knee is proximal to the toes
  66. what is superficial (external)/deep (internal) position?
    • toward or at the body surface/away from the body surface
    • used to locate body organs according to their relative closeness to the body surface
    • example: skin is superficial to the skeletal muscle and lungs are deep to the rib cage
  67. the wrist is ____ to the hand
    proximal
  68. the trachea (windpipe) is___ to the spine
    anterior
  69. the brain is ___ to the spinal cord
    • superior
    • cranial
  70. the kidney are ____ to the liver
    deep/internal
  71. the nose is ___ to the cheekbones
    medial
  72. the thumb is ___ to the ring finger
    lateral
  73. the thorax is ____ to the abdomen
    superior
  74. the skin is __________ to the skeleton
    superficial
  75. aka for section
    cut
  76. what is a plane
    when the section is made through the body wall or through and organ, it is made along an imaginary surface or line, called the plane
  77. tell me about the three body planes and section
    • lie at the right angles to one another
    • 1.sagittal plane: a plane that runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left parts. If it divides the body into equal parts, right down the midline of the body, it is called a median, or midsagittal plane
    • 2. frontal plane: aka coronal plane, is longitudinal plane that divides the body (or an organ) into anterior and posterior parts
    • 3. transverse plane:runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts. when organs are sectioned along the transverse lane, they are called cross sections
  78. what are the abbrevations for longitudinal section (sagittal or frontal) and cross sections?
    • longitudinal:1.s.
    • cross section: x.s. or c.s.
  79. the axial portion of the body has two large cavities, what are they?
    dorsal body cavity and ventral body cavity
  80. the dorsal body cavity is divided into 2 subdivisions, what are they?
    • cranial cavity, which the brain is enclosed within the rigid skull 
    • vertebral (or spinal) cavity, which the spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column

    they are continuous with each other
  81. the ventral body cavity is divided into 2 subdivision, what are they?
    • thoracic cavity, superior, dome shaped diaphragm, contains heart and lungs
    • abdominopelvic cavity, inferior, abdominal region contains stomach, intestines, liver, other organs, and the pelvic region contains reproductive organs, bladder, rectum.
  82. what is serosa or serous membrane?
    A exceedingly thin, double-layered membrane that lines the walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs
  83. what is parietal serosa?
    the part of the membrane lining the cavity wall
  84. what is visceral serosa?
    membrane lining covering the external surface of the organs within the cavity
  85. what is peritoneum?
    serosa lining in the abdominal cavity that covers the organs
  86. what is pleura?
    the serous membrane the encloses the lungs
  87. what is pericardium?
    the serious membrane that encloses the heart
  88. what are quadrants?
    • divides the abdominopelvic area into four equal regions:
    • ruq,luq,rlq,llq
  89. what is anatomical left and right?
    left and right on the figure, not on yourself
  90. what are the 9 regions of the abdominopelvic area?
    right hypochondriac region, epigastric region, left hypochondriac region, right lumbar region, umbilical region, left lumbar region, right iliac (inguinal) region, hypogastric (pubic) region, and left iliac (inguinal) region
  91. what does the right hypochondriac region hold?
    liver, gallbladder
  92. what does the epigastric region hold?
    • most of the stomach
    • immediately superior to the umbilical region
  93. what does the left hypchondriac region hold?
    diaphragm, part of the stomach
  94. what does the right lumbar region hold?
    ascending colon of the large intestine
  95. what does the umbilical region hold?
    • small intestine and transverse colon of the large intestine
    • the centermost region
  96. what does the left lumbar region hold?
    descending colon of the large intestine
  97. what does the right iliac (inguinal) region hold?
    cecum, appendix
  98. what does the hypogastric (pubic) region hold?
    • urinary bladder
    • inferior to the umbilica region
    • pubic area
  99. what does the left iliac (inguinal) region hold?
    initial part of the sigmoid colon
  100. name two organs found in the left upper quadrant
    • stomach
    • left kidney
  101. name two organs found in the right lower quadrant
    • cecum 
    • appendix
  102. what organ is divided into identical halves by the median plane?
    urinary bladder
  103. what do the iliac (inguinal) regions contain?
    lateral to the hypogastric region and overyling the superior parts of the hip bones
  104. what do the lumbar regions contain?
    • between the ribs and the flaring portions of the hip bones
    • lateral to the umbilical region
  105. what do the hypochondriac regions contain?
    • flanking the epigastric region laterally
    • overlying the lower ribs
  106. name the muscle that subdivides the ventral body cavities
    skeletal musculature (connective tissue)
  107. which organ system wound not be represented in any of the body cavities?
    integumentary (skin)
  108. what are the bony landmarks of the abdominopelvic cavity?
    • ribs
    • sternum
    • infrasternal angle
    • costal margin
  109. what body cavity affords the least protection to its internal structures?
    abdominal cavity
  110. what is the function of the serous membranes of the body?
    compartmentalize the various organs so that infection of one organ is prevented from spreading to another
  111. what is the oral cavity and what does it contain?
    • aka mouth
    • contains tongue and teeth
    • continuous with the rest of the digestive tube, which opens to the exterior at the anus
  112. what is the nasal cavity and what does it contain?
    • located within and posterior to the nose
    • is part of the passages of the respiratory system
  113. what is the orbital cavity and what does it contain?
    the orbital cavities orbits in the skull house the eyes and present them in an anterior position
  114. what is the middle ear cavities?
    each middle ear cavity lies just medial to an eardrum and is carved into the bony skull  these cavities contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of hearing in the inner ear
  115. what is the synovial cavity?
    are joint cavities, that are enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround the freely movable  joints of the body, such as those between the vertebra and the knee and hip joints.
  116. Interphase
  117. Prophase
  118. Prophase
  119. Prophase
  120. Metaphase
  121. Anaphase
  122. Anaphase
  123. Telephase
  124. Telephase
  125. Simple squamous epithelium
  126. Simple columnar epithelium
  127. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  128. Stratified squamous epithelium
  129. Stratified columnar epithelium
  130. Simple cuboidal epithelium
  131. Stratified cuboidal epithelium
  132. Transitional epithelium

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