Positive/Negatives of Frederick the Great's leadership during his reign. (prussia)
-harsh military training
-seized Silesia, Austria- sparked War of Austrian Succession
-all accepted Prussia as a great power
How did Maria Theresa's role develop during her time as Austria's empress?
-Father(Charles VI) had no son
-when Frederick II(the great) invaded Austria for Silesia convincingly appeald to Hungarians for support
-Lost Silesia but kept Austria
-reorganized bureaucracy, improved tax collection
-gained support among citizens
Why was Louis XIV known as the Sun King?
He took sun as his symbol because sun is the center of the solar system just like he's the center of the nation
"I am the state"
Describe Louis XIV's Finance Minister Colbert's positive contributions to France's economy.
-mercantilist: cleared lands for farming, encouraged mining/lacemaking, overseas colonies, high tariff on imported goods
Define constitutional government
rulers rule by rules agreed on by citizens, defined/limited by law
headed by privileged or upper class
king/queen exercises central power
What did the Edict of Nantes significantly change in France?
granted religious toleration to protestant/huguenots(french calvinist caholics)
Describe the relationship between Queen ElizabethI of England and Phillip II of Spain
elizabeth was protestant, phillip was catholic
he considered her his greatest enemy
her ships "sea dogs" attacked spanish fleets
she supported dutch against spanish
What were the causes of England's civil war in the 1600s?
-Charles I's struggle with Parliament, they wanted him to sign (he did) Petition of right; but he dissolved parliament
-during Long Parliament, they executed his chief ministers including Laud
-Charles fought back when they couldn't be dissolved
-stormed House of common
Name the reasons Russia had been isolated from the West until Peter the Great's rule
"time of troubles"
-succession, peasant uprising, invasions
What was the result of the Glorious revolution of 1688 and Bill of Rights in England?
revolution: parliament had James II"s daugther and son in law (Mary and William) take over because James flaunted his catholic faith, bloodless overthrowing
b.o.r.: superiority of parliament over monarchy, parliament had to meet regularly, monarch couldn't suspend laws, no roman catholic on throne, trial by jury, no unjust punishments, habeas corpus-need reason for jail
Describe the similar leadership experiences of Parliament of England, James I, Charles I, and James II.
they all fought for complete control over England- shot down by people
What were the positive and negative effects of Louis XIV's reign?
pos-french culture highly distinguished
neg- costly war, france deep in debt, lost huguenots when edict of nantes was revoked
Discuss reasons for, execution of, and outcomes of the Thirty years' war
causes: religious differences, local conflict in Bohemia. Ferdinand suppressed protestants, Ferdinand=Holy Roman Emperor, political alliances outweighed religion
execution:mercenaries(soldiers for hire) burned villages, destroyed crops
outcomes: severe depopulation, peace of Westphalia, France wins/gains territory on Spanish and German frontiers, Germany divided 360 states, Hapsburg loses big time