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What was life like in England under Cromwell's rule?
- -against Irish/Catholic/Levellers(wanted equal say)
- -Puritan religion, had to observe sabbath
- -religious freedom for protestants
- -no theatres, dancing, gambling
- -education for all
Positive/Negatives of Frederick the Great's leadership during his reign. (prussia)
- -harsh military training
- -seized Silesia, Austria- sparked War of Austrian Succession
- -all accepted Prussia as a great power
How did Maria Theresa's role develop during her time as Austria's empress?
- -Father(Charles VI) had no son
- -when Frederick II(the great) invaded Austria for Silesia convincingly appeald to Hungarians for support
- -Lost Silesia but kept Austria
- -reorganized bureaucracy, improved tax collection
- -gained support among citizens
Why was Louis XIV known as the Sun King?
- He took sun as his symbol because sun is the center of the solar system just like he's the center of the nation
- "I am the state"
Describe Louis XIV's Finance Minister Colbert's positive contributions to France's economy.
-mercantilist: cleared lands for farming, encouraged mining/lacemaking, overseas colonies, high tariff on imported goods
Define constitutional government
rulers rule by rules agreed on by citizens, defined/limited by law
headed by privileged or upper class
king/queen exercises central power
What did the Edict of Nantes significantly change in France?
- granted religious toleration to protestant/huguenots(french calvinist caholics)
- (Henry IV)
Describe the relationship between Queen ElizabethI of England and Phillip II of Spain
- elizabeth was protestant, phillip was catholic
- he considered her his greatest enemy
- her ships "sea dogs" attacked spanish fleets
- she supported dutch against spanish
What were the causes of England's civil war in the 1600s?
- -Charles I's struggle with Parliament, they wanted him to sign (he did) Petition of right; but he dissolved parliament
- -during Long Parliament, they executed his chief ministers including Laud
- -Charles fought back when they couldn't be dissolved
- -stormed House of common
Name the reasons Russia had been isolated from the West until Peter the Great's rule
- "time of troubles"
- -succession, peasant uprising, invasions
What was the result of the Glorious revolution of 1688 and Bill of Rights in England?
- revolution: parliament had James II"s daugther and son in law (Mary and William) take over because James flaunted his catholic faith, bloodless overthrowing
- b.o.r.: superiority of parliament over monarchy, parliament had to meet regularly, monarch couldn't suspend laws, no roman catholic on throne, trial by jury, no unjust punishments, habeas corpus-need reason for jail
Describe the similar leadership experiences of Parliament of England, James I, Charles I, and James II.
they all fought for complete control over England- shot down by people
What were the positive and negative effects of Louis XIV's reign?
- pos-french culture highly distinguished
- neg- costly war, france deep in debt, lost huguenots when edict of nantes was revoked
Discuss reasons for, execution of, and outcomes of the Thirty years' war
- causes: religious differences, local conflict in Bohemia. Ferdinand suppressed protestants, Ferdinand=Holy Roman Emperor, political alliances outweighed religion
- execution:mercenaries(soldiers for hire) burned villages, destroyed crops
- outcomes: severe depopulation, peace of Westphalia, France wins/gains territory on Spanish and German frontiers, Germany divided 360 states, Hapsburg loses big time