CRJ 130 Final Guide

The flashcards below were created by user darrelaplaon on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. A form of power that stresses the application or threat of physical force is known as _______
    Coercive power.
  2. In a highly authoritarian prison,__________
    treatment goals are less important
  3. If a shakedown were to occur in a prison, the _________would give the directive.
  4. ___________are employees who are directly concerned with furthering the institution’s goals and are in direct contact with clients.
    Line personnel
  5. The warden’s job security rests on her or his ability to ___________
    Run the institution efficiently
  6. Negotiations are central to prisoner control because correctional officers cannot have total control over the inmates.
  7. The relationship between staff and prisoners which focuses on material goods and written correspondence is one of exchange.
  8. There are a range of punishments given to inmates for disciplinary reasons when they are_____
  9. One such punishment is erasing good time credit.
  10. According to the authors, a majority of correctional officers are from __________
    rural settings.
  11. One primary incentive for being a corrections officer is the security of a civil service job.
  12. Over the past 40 years, federal courts, the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and affirmative action programs have dramatically changed the racial and gender composition of the correctional officer force
  13. Correctional officers sometimes feel that no one cares what happens inside the walls, that they’re doing time as well as the inmates, and that their work accounts for nothing on the outside.
  14. Classification may occur during transfer to another institution, in preparation for release and after an in-mate encounters problems.
  15. Psychological program services frequently take the form of group or individual counseling sessions rather than intensive therapy.
  16. Classification committees often revert to stereotypes rather than diagnostic criteria in assignment inmates.
  17. They often recognize the following stereo-types when classifying inmates—members of racial gangs, members of ethnic gangs, and predators who demand things.
  18. A majority of inmates under correctional authority have a history of mental health problems, diabetes problems and HIV/AIDS problems.
  19. The term ________refers to the treatment of the mind. Prisoner education is more available and often times required for juvenile offenders
  20. The most powerful new studies of correctional rehabilitation programs try to express their effectiveness using a________.
    cost-benefit ratio
  21. ____________ is the court case that established a right to medical treatment while incarcerated.
    Estelle v. Gamble
  22. With the increase of the prison population the percentage of parolees has __________.
  23. Parole is also known as __________.
    conditional release.
  24. Sir Walter Crofton built on Alexander Maconochie’s idea of __________
    requiring prisoners to earn early release.
  25. In the wake of the “tough on crime” movement over the past three dec-ades, the number of parolees has ___________
  26. Those serving on a parole board are appointed by the ___________
  27. In the autonomous model, there is a parole board,.......
    an independent decision-making authority that is organizationally close enough to the department to be sensitive to institutional and correctional needs.
  28. An inmate’s eligibility for release into community supervision depends on requirements set by__________________
    the law and sentence status
  29. Discretionary release places great faith in the ability of the parole board members to____________
    predict future offender behavior.
  30. Most parole boards cite an inmate’s progress in __________
    self-improvement pro-grams as one criterion for release.
  31. Prior criminal record, attitudes toward victims and history of community adjustment are _______________
    release criteria used by the parole board
  32. The goal of community corrections is to __________________
    prepare offenders for reentry into society gradually through the reintegration model.
  33. Parole is often viewed as a_________
  34. Dirty drug tests, the loss of a job, and an arrest for a new crime are likely to lead to a __________
    parole revocation
  35. Three forces influence the newly released offender’s adjustment to free society
    They include the parole board, the parole bureaucracy, and the experiences of the offender.
  36. When parole officers play the role of cop, they can_________________________
    restrict many aspects of the parolee’s life and initiate revocation for violations.
  37. Requirements and rules designed to aid readjustment to society and control parolee movement are called ___________
    conditions of release.
  38. ___________are not a high-priority need for many offenders released from prison
    Marriage and home life
  39. Research has shown that post-release supervision is____________.
    limited in its effectiveness
  40. The procedures of juvenile corrections incorporate ___________.
    informality and discretionary decision making.
  41. Since 1994, the juvenile crime rate has ____________
  42. The first juvenile court was established in ________
  43. The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony believed .....
    the child was evil and in need of discipline
  44. The case that required a standard of “beyond a doubt” for delinquency matters is ___________
    In Re Winship.
  45. The case that specified the “essentials” required by Kent—notice, hearing, counsel, and cross-examination is_____________.
    In Re Gault
  46. The first and basic “essentials of due process” required by juvenile offenders was determined in __________.
    Kent v. US
  47. Factors in a juvenile’s history that indicate a high risk of delinquency are________________________.
    behavior problems in elementary school, drug dealing, and antisocial parents.
  48. The most common sanction a juvenile receives is _____________.
  49. The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1988 requires states to determine _________________________.
    whether the proportion of minorities in confinement exceeds their proportion in the population.
  50. The public today calls for a ___________approach for juveniles.
  51. Over the past quarter century, the incarceration rate has ____________.
  52. The region within the United States that has the lowest incarceration rate is the _________.
  53. The state with the highest incarceration rate among all the states is_________.
  54. Eighty percent of California’s re-commitments stemmed from ___________.
    technical violations
  55. Predictive studies calculate that the future prison population of the United States is likely to _______________.
    remain stable
  56. A correctional officer’s ability to do their job is impacted by________________.
    prison overcrowding in many ways
  57. There is an increased potential for violence,......
    it puts a strain on staff morale, and limits the ability to run programs.
  58. Overcrowded prisons may also violate provisions of the _____________.
    Eighth Amendment
  59. For two decades, the crime rate in the United States has been __________.
  60. According to the authors, the most costly correctional resource is___________.
    the prison
  61. Some overseers think a hardening of public attitudes toward criminals is reflected in _____________.
    longer sentences
  62. Ethnicity relates to a person’s________,__________,____________.
    language, religion, and group traditions.
  63. After 1980, prison surpassed college as a place for______________.
    young African American men
  64. One in three African American men are________________.
    under correctional supervision
  65. Patterns of disproportionate representation in the criminal justice system start with_________.
  66. The fact that African Americans and Latinos are subjected to the criminal justice system at considerably higher rates than other ethnic and racial groups is _________.
  67. Self-report studies show that most people have _____________.
    committed a crime
  68. A consequence of the view of differential criminality would be........
    that the view is vulnerable to charges of racism and it would mean the creation of a ‘criminal class’ of people who are dangerous.
  69. The victim’s perception of the race of the offender differs from _________________.
    the race of those arrested
  70. Many observers believe that the relationship between racism and the criminal justice system is____________.
  71. Those with a felony conviction are not allowed to ____.
  72. This is referred to as _______________.
  73. Recent sociological studies have demonstrated that employers are both...................
    hesitant to hire young men who have been in prison and are more likely to do a background check for young African American men
  74. The problem of dis-proportionality is more complicated if the problem is_________________.
    not racist people but disadvantageous rules and practices
  75. Examination of self-report studies of criminality has often revealed that ............
    African American and white youths admit to similar participation in criminal and deviant activity
  76. It took approximately 30 minutes for Angel Diaz to die by _______________________.
    lethal injection in Florida
  77. The term retribution refers to the belief that one who takes another’s life deserves____________.
    punishment equal to the victim’s fate
  78. The term deterrence refers to idea that the punishment of execution will prevent others from engaging in ______________.
    violent criminal activity
  79. According to the author, until the mid-1700s criminal punishment in Europe and American colonies focused on ______.
    the offender’s body....It also focused on mutilation, whipping, and dismemberment.
  80. Analysts argue that public opinion for the death penalty is _______________.
    somewhat confusing
  81. To en-sure thorough deliberation before imposing the death sentence, legislatures enacted a ____________.
    two-stage process
  82. In ____________ the Supreme Court ruled that executing the mentally retarded is unconstitutional.
    Atkins v. Virginia
  83. In ____________ the Supreme Court ruled that the insane should not be executed.
    Ford v. Wainwright
  84. The case of _______________ held that potential jurors who object to the death penalty cannot be automatically excluded from jury service in capital cases.
    Witherspoon v. Illinois
  85. Because of the heinous nature of the crime, several states have sought to enact laws permitting use of the death penalty for adults who ___________.
    rape a child
  86. According to opponents of capital punishment, evidence the death penalty deters violent crime is ________.
  87. Opponents of the death penalty believe that it is applied in a _____________________.
    discriminatory fashion
  88. Use of the death penalty will continue to be a major source of debate among________,________,__________.
    legislators, scholars, and correctional officials
  89. Aggravated and mitigating circumstances are looked at during the sentencing phase of a _______________.
    bifurcated trial
  90. People in poor communities tend to tell researchers that they........
    want for people not to go to prison
  91. As a philosophy, community justice is based on the pursuit of justice that goes beyond the three traditional tasks such as ________,_______,________.
    apprehension, conviction, and punishment
  92. While traditional justice focuses on processing cases, community justice focuses on______________.
    solving crime problems
  93. The traditional criminal justice system is concerned almost exclusively with_____________.
  94. Traditional criminal justice is ____________.
  95. An innovative neighborhood-based approach for reducing crime and increasing public safety is _____________________.
    community surveillance
  96. The community justice approach does not combine _________ and ___________.
    crime control and rehabilitation
  97. Community Justice approach.....
    is a philosophy of justice, strategy of justice, and a series of justice programs.
  98. Citizen advisory boards help __________ and ___________.
    identify and prioritize local crime problems
  99. In the 1960s, most people agreed that the primary mission of corrections was __________.
  100. Corrections lacks ___________.
    a clear mission
  101. The history of corrections has taught us that we......
    often injure the people we try to help
  102. A structural problem with corrections is that the system depends on............
    significant factors outside of its control
  103. There are two goals with corrections staff—.....
    attracting the right people to work in corrections and motivating them to remain once they are employed
  104. The most extraordinary health problem in contemporary corrections often based on mandatory sentencing, determinate sentencing and truth in sentencing is______.
Card Set:
CRJ 130 Final Guide
2013-05-21 10:38:06
CRJ 130 Gutierrez

Final study guide
Show Answers: