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List the 5 components of fitness
- cardiorespiratory endurance
- muscular strength
- muscular endurance
- body composition
is the ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity.
is the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.
is the ability to resist fatigue and hold a muscle contraction for a long time or to contract a muscle over and over again.
is the ability to move the joints through their full range of motion.
is the proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body.
List the 4 principles of physical training
Overload places increasing amounts of stress on the body in order to cause adaptations that improve physical fitness.
The body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it. To develop a particular fitness component, you must perform exercises designed specifically for that component. It also applies to skill-related components or to different body parts.
People vary in the maximum level of fitness they can achieve and in the rate of change they can expect from an exercise program.
The principle where fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered. If you don't use it you lose it.
What does FITT stand for?
Apply the FITT principle to weight training
Frequency - at least 2 nonconsecutive days of weight training
Intensity - amount of weight based on your level of fitness and fitness goals
Time - set and reps
Type - exercises for all of your major muscle groups
How should you plan your workout if you want to combine aerobic exercise and strength training?
It is recommended that you do 15-60 minutes of aerobic exercise after each weight training session.
What is R.I.C.E.?
REST -First you must stop using the injured area as soon as you experience pain.
ICE - Apply ice to the injured area for 10-20 minutes to reduce swelling and alleviate the pain and repeat every few hours until swelling is gone.
COMPRESS -The injured area should be wrapped firmly with elastic or compression bandages between icings.
ELEVATE -Raise the injured area above heart level to decrease blood supply and reduce swelling.
Identify an exercise for biceps
Identify an exercise for triceps
Tricep extension with DB's
Identify an exercise for pectoralis major
Identify an exercise for deltoids
Military Press with DB's
Identify an exercise for hamstrings
In place lunges
Identify an exercise for gluteus maximus
Identify an exercise for quads
Identify an exercise for trapezious
Identify an exercise for obliques
Identify an exercise for latissimus dorsi
Lat pull down
Identify an exercise for rectus abdominus
Identify an exercise for gastrocnemius
What is isometric (static) exercise?
Muscle contraction without change in length of the muscle, nor change in the angle in the joint on which the muscle acts. Plank would be an example of an isometric exercise.
What is dynamic (isotonic) exercise?
Muscle contraction with change in length of the muscle. Push-ups are an example of a dynamic exercise.
Explain the relationship between a concentric muscle contraction and an eccentric muscle contraction.
Concentric and eccentric muscle contractions are both dynamic muscle contractions. But, concentric muscle contractions occur when the muscle shortens while overcoming the force of resistance being applied. An example of a concentric muscle contraction, on bicep curl, would be curling up weight to shoulder. While lowering the weight would be an example of an eccentric muscle contraction (the muscle lengthens as it contracts) on the same muscle group, bicep.
Explain the relationship between the agonist and antagonist.
While performing a muscle contraction, the muscle that is contracting is the agonist and the muscle that needs to relax and stretch to allow contraction is the antagonist. For example, when performing a bicep curl the bicep is the agonist and the tricep is the antagonist.
How should you organize the order of exercises in a workout?
Exercising large muscle groups, or for more than one joint, first allows for a more effective overload of larger more powerful muscle groups. Smaller muscle groups will fatigue faster and easier which will limit the capacity to overload the large muscle group. Try and work agonist and antagonist in sequence, one after another.Example - we do bench press before we work bicep and tricep. Then we work bicep immediately follwoed by tricep.
Identify 4 negative health risks of taking anabolic steriods.
- Mood swings
- Liver damage
- High blood pressure
Explain ballistic stretching, static stretching, dynamic stretching, and PNF stretching and provide an example of each.
Ballistic stretching – muscle are stretched suddenly in a forceful bouncing movement. Example Cherry pickers - touching toes repeatedly in rapid succession.
Static stretching – each muscle is gradually stretched and held for 10 - 30 seconds per stretch, as in a modified hurdler stretch for hamstrings.
Dynamic stretching – joints are taken to their full functional range of motion, as in slow and controlled arm circles.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) – reflexes initiated by muscle and joint nerves are used for greater training effects. The most popular is the contract-relax stretching method, where a muscle is contracted before it is stretched. For example in a seated stretch calf muscles would be contracted, flowed by brief relaxation and then a static stretch.
Identify the 6 essential nutrients and explain their function in the body.
Protein – form important parts for muscles, bones, blood and enzymes.Carbohydrates – supply energy to cells in the brain and nervous system.
Fats – supply energy, insulate, cushion and support organs.
Vitamins – produce specific chemical reactions within cells.
Minerals – help regulate body functions, and aid in maintenance of tissue.
Water – makes up 50 - 60% of body weight, provide medium for chemical reactions, transport for waste and chemical products.
What is power?
the ability to exert force rapidly
What is hypertrophy?
an increase in the size of muscle fibers, usually stimulated by muscular overload, as occurs during strength training
What is atrophy?
a decrease in the size of muscle fibers due to inactivity
What is a calorie?
a measure of energy content in food
What is a supplement?
something ingested that provides certain nutrients for the body
What are steroids?
a synthetic steroid hormone that resembles testosterone in promoting the growth of muscle.
What is a repetition?
the number of times an exercise is performed during one set
What is a set?
a group of repetitions followed by a rest period