Explain ballistic stretching, static stretching, dynamic stretching, and PNF stretching and provide an example of each.
Ballistic stretching – muscle are stretched suddenly in a forceful bouncing movement. Example Cherry pickers - touching toes repeatedly in rapid succession.
Static stretching – each muscle is gradually stretched and held for 10 - 30 seconds per stretch, as in a modified hurdler stretch for hamstrings.
Dynamic stretching – joints are taken to their full functional range of motion, as in slow and controlled arm circles.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) – reflexes initiated by muscle and joint nerves are used for greater training effects. The most popular is the contract-relax stretching method, where a muscle is contracted before it is stretched. For example in a seated stretch calf muscles would be contracted, flowed by brief relaxation and then a static stretch.