perception,interpretation and responses to other people's signals
implications for small groups
-perfect understanding is impossible
-disagreement is OK
-no preference is best
habits of poor listeners
-mind assault-jaded view of speaker, therefore nothing they say is right
-focusing on irrelevancies
any action, sound, or word in interaction that is interpreted as a whole by another person. Messages can be entirely verbal, nonverbal or a mixture of both.
theory of structuration
the idea that group communication creates and maintains a group's norms and character of operation.
occurs when group members think they have the same meaning for a word or phrase but in actuality do not.
the seating arrangements in groups and even the way the furniture is arranged
group tension amd how to handle it
1. group members can move through the primary tension stage more quickly if they know each other.
2. members can reduce both primary and secondary tension by sharing what they know about the problems at hand.
3. secondary and tertiary tensions can be managed if group members demonstrate tolerance for disagreement.
4. humor is also an effective wat to handle secondary and tertiary tension in a group.
stages of groups socialization
1. antecedent-before new members join the group, new and old members have attitudes, beliefs, motives, and behavior patterns that affect how they will function in the group.
2. anticipatory-new & old members have expectations about one another; the new members have expectations about the group. Welcoming activities that introduce old & new memebers help members overcome primary tension.
3. encounter-new & old members begin to work together and adjust to one another; the new member's role is negotiated in the group; & old members' roles may change.
4. assimilation-the new members are fully integrated into the group; role relationships have been worked out.
5. exit-members must cope with the loss of a member or termination of the group. discussion and formal disbanding activities help members say goodbye.
types of tension
-primary- anxiety arising early in a group's formation, as members work out their relationships and roles.
-secondary-task-related tension that stems from differing opinions about the substantive work of the group.
-tertiary-tension that stems from power and status struggles in a group.
encompasses behaviors that contribute directly to the accomplishment of the group's task
roles that encompass behaviors that help a group maintain harmonious relationships and contribute to a cohesive interpersonal climate
roles that encompass self-centered behaviors that place the individual's need ahead of the group's needs.
formal, explicit standards of behavior and procedures by which a group operates
informal, implicit standards of behavior and procedures by which members operate
metaphor or analogies (ex. velcro)
radiant thinking/free association
degree to which members feel they are part of the group
nominal group technique
-put ideas up
the use of communication to modify attitudes and behaviors of members to meet group's goals and need.