01 Vocab Lifespan Developmental Psychology

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01 Vocab Lifespan Developmental Psychology
2013-05-17 17:48:30

Ch 01 - The Life Span: Human Development for Helping Professionals
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  1. Life span development
    Life span developmental psychology
    The study of human development from conception to death
  2. Reflective Practice
    A method used by counselors that emphasizes careful consideration of theoretical and empirical sources of knowledge, as well as one's own beliefs and assumptions, as a precursor to practice.
  3. Stage
    A period of time, perhaps several years, during which a person's activities (at least in one broad domain) have certain characteristics in common
  4. Differentiation
    The process by which a global skill or activity divides into multiple skills or begins to serve multiple functions
  5. Hierarchical Integration
    The organization and integration of activities and skills from one stage of development into broader, more complex patters at the next stage
  6. Id
    In Freud's personality theory, one of three aspects of personality.  Represents the biological self and its function are to keep the individual alive.  It is irrational, blindly pursuing the fulfillment of physical needs or "instincts," such as the hunger drive and the sex drive.
  7. Pleasure Principle
    The pursuit of gratification, which motivates the id in Freud's personality theory
  8. Ego
    In Freud's personality theory, the second of three aspects of personality, which represents the rational, realistic self that seeks to meet bodily needs in sensible ways that take into account all aspects of a situation.
  9. Reality Principle
    A focus on understanding the world and behavioral consequences that leads to sensible and self-protective behavior. In Freud's personality theory, the ego operates on this principle.
  10. Superego
    In Freud's personality theory, the last of three aspects of personality, which serves as an "internalized parent" that causes one to feel guilty if his behavior deviates from parental and societal restrictions.
  11. Freud's Psychosexual Stages
    The five developmental stages that Freud believed were initiated by changes in the id and its energy levels.
  12. Oral Stage
    The first of Freud's psychosexual stages, corresponding to the 1st year of life, when Freud believed that a disproportionate amount of id energy is invested in drives satisfied through the mouth.
  13. Oral Fixation
    In Freud's personality theory, an excessive need for oral pleasures (such as eating or talking) that results from extreme denial or excessive indulgence of them during the oral stage
  14. Anal Fixation
    In Freud's personality theory, the result of an unsatisfactory experience at the anal stage that can include being withholding (of mental and emotional resources), being compulsively cautious about keeping things clean and in order, or being overly messy and disorganized.
  15. Anal Personality
    In Freud's personality theory, a person who has an anal fixation.
  16. Anal Stage
    In Freud's theory, the second of psychosexual stage, beginning in the 2nd year of life, when the anal area of the body becomes the focus of greatest pleasure.  During this stage, parenting practices associated with toilet training that are either overcontrolling or overindulgent could have long-lasting effects on personality development.
  17. Phallic Stage
    The third of Freud's psychosexual stages, lasting from age 3 to about 5, in which id energy is focused primarily in the genital region.  This stage draws the greatest parental discipline, leads to feelings of guilt and the development of the superego, and can have long-lasting effects on how a child copes with postpubertal sexual needs.
  18. Latency Stage
    The fourth of Freud's psychosexual stages, beginning around age 5, during which the id's energy is not especially linked to any particular pleasure or body part, and the potential conflicts among the three aspects of personality are largely latent and unexpressed.
  19. Genital Stage
    The fifth and last of Freud's psychosexual stages, when the changes of puberty mean that id energy is especially invested in adult sexual impulses
  20. Erikson's Pychosocial Stages
    Erik Erikson's eight-stage model of personality that focuses on explaining attitudes and feelings toward the self and others.  The first five correspond to the age periods in Freud's psychosexual stages, whereas three adult life stages suggest that personality development continues until death.
  21. Trust versus Mistrust
    The crisis faced in the first of Erikson's "Eight Stages of Man," in which the responsiveness of an infant's caregiver will determine whether the baby establishes basic trust and a sense of being valuable.
  22. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
    The crisis faced in the second of Erikson's "Eight Stages of Man," in which the 1- to 3-year-old child may develop feelings of autonomy ("I can do things myself") or of shame and self-doubt, depending on whether his caregiver strikes the right balance between exercising control and being sensitive to the child's new need for independence.
  23. Piaget's Cognitive Development
    Jean Piaget's theory of the development of cognition, which outlines four childhood stages in which the capacity to think logically about both concrete and abstract concepts evolves.
  24. Sensorimotor Stage
    In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the period from birth to about age 2 when infants are not yet capable of representational thought, so they are unable to form mental images or to plan their behavior.  Babies have sensory experiences, organize them on the basis of inborn reflexes or patterns of motor responses, and make motor responses to them.
  25. Preoperational stage
    In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the time period from approximately age 2 to 7 when children are capable of representational thought but appear to be prelogical in their thinking.
  26. Concrete Operational Stage
    In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the period from about age 6 to 12 when children begin to think logically but have difficulty applying logical thought to abstract contents.
  27. Formal Operational Stage
    In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, a stage that begins at about 11 or 12 years, when children are able to engage in thinking which (1) rises above particular contents and focuses on relationships that govern those contents (abstractions), (2) involves coordinating multiple relationships, and (3) can be difficult even for adults.
  28. Dѐcalages
    Within-stage variations in Piaget's cognitive stage theory.  Children sometimes show more advanced or less advanced functioning in one or another cognitive domain than is typical of their overall stage of development.
  29. Incremental Models
    Theoretical models in which change is considered steady and specific to particular behaviors or mental activities, rather than being marked by major, sweeping reorganizations that affect many behaviors at once, as in stage theories.
  30. Behaviorist Tradition
    Approaches to explaining learning in which behavioral change is seen as a function of chains of specific environmental events, such as those that occur in classical and operant conditioning.
  31. Classical Conditioning
    A process by which a change in behavior takes place when a neutral event or stimulus is associated with a stimulus that causes an automatic response.  As a result the neutral stimulus causes the person to make the same automatic response in the future.
  32. Operant Conditioning
    The process by which a person learns to produce a formerly random behavior (or operant) in response to a cue because the behavior was previously reinforced in that situation.
  33. Conditioned Stimulus
    A formerly neutral stimulus that has become associated with a stimulus that causes an automatic response, thus causing the same automatic response in the future.
  34. Operant
    An accidental or random action
  35. Reinforcement
    An event that an individual experiences as pleasurable or rewarding, which increases the frequency of a behavior that occurred immediately before the pleasurable event.
  36. Social Learning Theories
    Theories that focus specifically on how children acquire personality characteristics and social skills
  37. Observational Learning (Modeling)
    Learning by imitation.  Occurs when an individual repeats an act or sequence of actions that she has observed another individual (the model) performing.
  38. Generalization
    The process by which learned behaviors may be extended to new events that are very similar to events in the original learning context.