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What is an exclamatory sentence?
Used to expressed feeling
What does an imperative sentence convey?
Used to direct action
What does an interrogatory sentence convey?
Used to inquire, ask questions
What does a declarative sentence convey?
Used to make assertions or statements
What is a lexical definition?
Lexican definitions explain current usages, and for them to be correct, they must be interchangable.
- I.e...Scott is no longer a bachlor
- Scott is no longer a unmarried man
What is stipulation definition?
Stipulative definitions specifiy to a term will be used and may difffer from conventional or lexical usage.Based on usefulness, not correctness.
- Ie...scott is bald.
- stipulate by bald we mean, "has more hair than scalp"
What is an ostensive definition?
An ostensive definition suggests meaning by pointing out examples of (physically referring) a word.
ie...this is a projector...these are black pants
What is ambiguous?
Two or more meanings, context is not clear enough to point to one meaning.
What is the meaning of positivists?
- Logical positivists (verificationist) states for a statement to have meaning it must be testable and verifiable.
- Ie...scott is bald....
- not scott has a soul
What is a pragmatists meaning?
Pragmatists: the meaning of a term is its practical consequences(experiences and choices)
- ie scott is educated
- practical consequence: i can function in the world in a better way than someone who is not.
ie..scott is a piece of caramel corn....PC...none, the statement has no influence on someones life
What is a good argument?
- Deductively valid or inductively strong.
- Validity or strength and truth of the premises apparent to all interested parties.
- be clearly stated
- avoids circulairy
- be relevant to the issues at hand
- argument clearly sound
- 2 plausible premises and 1 conclusion
What is argument relevance?
Argument relevance is determined by the context and parties involved.
What is normally dynamic?
the shifting for relevance is subtle and is hazard
What is a fallacy?
A mistake in reasoning or argument, occuring through insincerity or incompetency.
What are two kinds of fallacies?
- Formal: the argument doesn't have the right structure, or form.
- Informal: the argument doesn't have the right content or language.
What is a circularity fallacy?
- An argument is circular if it presumes the truth of what is proved. Begging the question: the conclusion of an argument is that part of a larger picture that is supposed true by the support/premise
- ie. you care about your final grade. therefore, you should study for your final
How do fallacies get motivated?
- Insincerity: someone is trying to deceptive, psychological motivation
- Incompetence: someone is unable to detect the limits of their own competency, no motivation.
What is an ambigous argument?
- An argument is ambiguous if it changes the meaning of a term or phrase within an argument.
- also called equivocation....used in news headlines
When is an argument emotional?
- An argument that appeals to emotion when it generates feelings instead of arguing according to logical principles
- ie....abortion murders innocent beautiful babies...
What is a loaded description? informal
- A description in a piece of support/premise that would not be accepted by both parties in a disagreement.
- ie....abortion topic
What is a black and white or false dilemma?
- an over simplification of available options: two choices (black and white)
- you can either get in shape...or die
What does appealing to ignorance imply?
A failure to recognize a lack of judgemnt on your part, when judgement is the controversial matter to the other person.
What is the argument of appealing to a crowd imply?
- Premises are worded based on an untrue generalization.
- ie..all college professors are liberal, therefore scott must be liberal
What is a false sterotype?
- Premises are worded to assume that the members of a certain group are more alike than they actually are.
- ie...All college professors at rio hondo voted for obama
What is post hoc ergo propeter hoc fallacy?
- assuming a temporal relation means a casual relation
- ie...a happend after B(temproal)
- A was caused by B(casual)
- ie....scott had a better memory after ingesting tapioca pudding, so the tapioca pudding must have caused his memory to work better
What is a strawman argument?
- Setting up an argument in a weakened position, as a misrepresentation of what someone would believe
- ie...democrats believe everyone should pay 55% tax rate. name one democrat who believes this...
- republicans believe obama is the anti christ...name one who believes that
What is a critical fallacy?
- Appeal to force: using intimidation against a person instead of reason. Authority can be used as intimidation as well.
- ie....you better do it now because i am going to throw you in jail otherwise.
What is ad homiem?
- Attacking characteristics about the person instead of dealing with the argument or rationality of the person
- ie...of course you believe god exists..your a christian
- implication that you are irrational
What is a surface inconsistency?
- paul saw two angels.
- john saw three
- luke saw four
- therefore there were two or more angels at the tomb
what is a deeper inconsistency?
- John saw two angels at the tomb
- paul saw three
- luke saw four
- therefore there were four or more angels at the tomb.
- first two claims conflict strongly with the third.