Chapter 12 The Central Nervous System (TB)

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lonelygirl
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220117
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Chapter 12 The Central Nervous System (TB)
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2013-05-18 20:00:53
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103A
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  1. The nonspecific ascending pathways ________.

    A) are evolutionarily newer than the specific pathways
    B) are involved in the emotional aspects of perception
    C) are also called the lemniscal system
    D) receive inputs from a single type of sensory receptor
    B) are involved in the emotional aspects of perception
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The superchiasmatic nucleus is found in the ________.

    A) pons
    B) thalamus
    C) hypothalamus
    D) medulla
    C) hypothalamus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the ________.

    A) cerebrum
    B) pons
    C) midbrain
    D) medulla
    B) pons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The arbor vitae refers to ________.

    A) cerebellar gray matter
    B) cerebellar white matter
    C) the pleatlike convolutions of the cerebellum
    D) flocculonodular nodes
    B) cerebellar white matter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The brain stem consists of the ________.

    A) pons, medulla, cerebellum, and midbrain
    B) cerebrum, pons, midbrain, and medulla
    C) midbrain, medulla, and pons
    D) midbrain only
    C) midbrain, medulla, and pons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The primary auditory cortex is located in the ________.

    A) frontal lobe
    B) parietal lobe
    C) prefrontal lobe
    D) temporal lobe
    D) temporal lobe
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Spinocerebellar tracts ________.

    A) give rise to conscious experience of perception
    B) terminate in the spinal cord
    C) carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
    D) are found in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord
    C) carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The spinal cord has gray matter on the ________.

    A) outside, white matter on the inside, and a ventral motor root
    B) inside, white matter on the outside, and a dorsal motor root
    C) outside, white matter on the inside, and a dorsal motor root
    D) inside, white matter on the outside, and a ventral motor root
    D) inside, white matter on the outside, and a ventral motor root
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?

    A) arachnoid and pia
    B) arachnoid and epidura
    C) dura and epidura
    D) arachnoid and dura
    A) arachnoid and pia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.

    A) pons
    B) midbrain
    C) medulla
    D) cerebrum
    C) medulla
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.

    A) sympathetic ganglia
    B) the ventral root ganglia of the spinal cord
    C) the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
    D) the thalamus
    C) the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The fissure separating the cerebral hemispheres is the ________.

    A) longitudinal fissure
    B) central fissure
    C) parieto-occipital fissure
    D) lateral fissure
    A) longitudinal fissure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The limbic association area of the multimodal association areas provides our ________.

    A) emotional impact
    B) recall and personality
    C) working memory
    D) learning abilities
    A) emotional impact
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________.

    A) furrow
    B) gyrus
    C) sulcus
    D) fissure
    C) sulcus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The cerebrospinal fluid ________.

    A) is formed mostly by the choroid plexuses
    B) enters the four ventricles after filling and circulating through the subarachnoid space
    C) is secreted mostly by the ependymal cells lining the brain ventricles
    D) is secreted by the arachnoid villi
    A) is formed mostly by the choroid plexuses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. If the posterior portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly ________.

    A) the telencephalon would cease development
    B) the cranial nerves would not form
    C) the hindbrain would not be present
    D) the spinal cord may be affected
    D) the spinal cord may be affected
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The central sulcus separates which lobes?

    A) temporal from parietal
    B) frontal from temporal
    C) frontal from parietal
    D) parietal from occipital
    C) frontal from parietal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be ________.

    A) lateral spinothalamic
    B) posterior spinothalamic
    C) reticulospinal
    D) anterior spinothalamic
    A) lateral spinothalamic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?

    A) dendrites
    B) fiber tracts
    C) cell bodies
    D) unmyelinated axons
    B) fiber tracts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The hypothalamus ________.

    A) has the Pulvinar body as part of its structure
    B) is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature
    C) mediates sensations
    D) is an important auditory and visual relay center
    B) is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.

    A) myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
    B) unmyelinated nerve fibers only
    C) soma that have both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
    D) myelinated nerve fibers only
    A) myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. A lateral tract in the spinal cord would be ________.

    A) rubrospinal
    B) pyramidal
    C) tectospinal
    D) vestibulospinal
    A) rubrospinal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ________.

    A) spinal shock only
    B) quadriplegia
    C) paraplegia
    D) hemiplegia
    C) paraplegia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________.

    A) spinal nerve roots
    B) lower motor neurons
    C) upper motor neurons
    D) neuromotor junction
    C) upper motor neurons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________.

    A) sulci
    B) ganglia
    C) gyri
    D) fissures
    C) gyri
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________.

    A) cranial fossa
    B) lateral sulcus
    C) central sulcus
    D) longitudinal fissure
    B) lateral sulcus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Brodmannʹs numbering refers to ________.

    A) molecular weight of types of neurons
    B) counts of neurons per fiber bundle
    C) structurally distinct cortical areas
    D) rates of neural division in embryogenesis
    C) structurally distinct cortical areas
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ________.

    A) extrapyramidal and rubrospinal
    B) supplementary and cerebellar-pontine
    C) pyramidal and corticospinal
    D) segmental and nigrostriatal
    C) pyramidal and corticospinal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.

    A) primary visual area
    B) visual association area
    C) calcarine cortex
    D) lateral geniculate body
    B) visual association area
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Brocaʹs area ________.

    A) corresponds to Brodmannʹs area 8
    B) is usually found in the right hemisphere
    C) serves the recognition of complex objects
    D) is considered a motor speech area
    D) is considered a motor speech area
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. The function of commissures is to connect ________.

    A) corresponding areas of the two hemispheres
    B) areas of cortex with lower centers
    C) pyramidal cells with corresponding cerebellar cells
    D) adjacent areas of gray matter within a cerebral hemisphere
    A) corresponding areas of the two hemispheres
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________.

    A) alcohol
    B) anesthetics
    C) nutrients such as glucose
    D) metabolic waste such as urea
    D) metabolic waste such as urea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Which of the following is not part of the basal nuclei?

    A) lentiform nucleus
    B) substantia nigra
    C) putamen
    D) globus pallidus
    B) substantia nigra
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________.

    A) caudate nucleus
    B) cingulate gyrus
    C) hippocampus
    D) amygdaloid nucleus
    A) caudate nucleus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Which of the following is not a midbrain structure?

    A) corpora quadrigemina
    B) third ventricle
    C) cerebral peduncles
    D) red nucleus
    B) third ventricle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________.

    A) consolidation
    B) automatic memory
    C) rehearsal
    D) long-term memory
    A) consolidation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. An electroencephalogram ________.

    A) indicates an average amplitude of 20-100 V
    B) indicates a normal frequency range of 1-30 Hz
    C) can only detect abnormal electrical activity
    D) is a record of total body electrical activity
    B) indicates a normal frequency range of 1-30 Hz
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ________.

    A) pyramids
    B) limbic system
    C) reticular formation
    D) thalamus
    C) reticular formation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?

    A) potassium
    B) glucose
    C) protein
    D) red blood cells
    D) red blood cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. REM sleep is associated with ________.

    A) decreased vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure
    B) temporary skeletal muscle paralysis, except for the extrinsic eye muscles
    C) decreased activity of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex
    D) decreased oxygen use, especially in the cerebral cortex
    B) temporary skeletal muscle paralysis, except for the extrinsic eye muscles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Mr. Hom was injured in an accident that completely severed his spinal cord at the level of T12. You would expect to find all of the following except ________.

    A) loss of sensation below the level of injury
    B) slurred speech
    C) paralysis of the lower extremities
    D) perspiration in the affected area
    B) slurred speech
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________.

    A) production of excessive quantities of urine
    B) loss of body temperature control
    C) pathologic sleep
    D) loss of proprioception
    D) loss of proprioception
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. White matter of the spinal cord ________.

    A) is composed of myelinated fibers only
    B) contains the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
    C) has afferent fibers carrying impulses from peripheral sensory receptors
    D) ascends to higher PNS centers
    B) contains the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Which statement about aging is most accurate?

    A) Despite some neuronal loss, changing synaptic connections support additional learning throughout life.
    B) Synaptic connections are too fixed to permit a great deal of learning after the age of 35.
    C) Learning throughout the adult and aging years is supported primarily by glial proliferation.
    D) The brain reaches its maximum weight around the seventh decade of life.
    A) Despite some neuronal loss, changing synaptic connections support additional learning throughout life.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Which association is most accurate?

    A) motor-anterior
    B) motor-medial
    C) sensory-anterior
    D) sensory-medial
    A) motor-anterior
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Brain wave amplitude ________.

    A) reflects the number of neurons firing synchronously
    B) results from subtraction of delta waves from theta waves
    C) is an average of about 1 V
    D) is the measure of activity of specific individual neurons
    A) reflects the number of neurons firing synchronously
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Declarative memory is not stored in the ________.

    A) mammillary body
    B) amygdala
    C) thalamus
    D) hippocampus
    A) mammillary body
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Huntingtonʹs disease ________.

    A) begins to appear at ages 10 to 15
    B) may be a result of a defective 26th chromosome
    C) usually subsides by ages 35 to 40
    D) has symptoms that are the opposite of Parkinsonʹs disease
    D) has symptoms that are the opposite of Parkinsonʹs disease
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. The corpus striatum plays a special role in ________.

    A) face recognition
    B) fact learning
    C) skill learning
    D) spatial learning
    C) skill learning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Storing information in long-term memory ________.

    A) is facilitated by the release of norepinephrine
    B) depends on the remaining capacity of long-term memory
    C) is interfered with by emotional arousal
    D) is always dependent on the formation of conscious impressions
    A) is facilitated by the release of norepinephrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the ________.

    A) vestibular nuclei
    B) reticular nuclei
    C) superior colliculi
    D) red nuclei
    A) vestibular nuclei
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?

    A) hippocampus
    B) prefrontal cortex
    C) amygdala
    D) medulla
    D) medulla
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________.

    A) visceral sensory area
    B) vestibular cortex
    C) olfactory cortex
    D) gusatory cortex
    A) visceral sensory area
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Which statement about coma is true?

    A) Coma is rarely caused by damage to brain stem structures.
    B) During coma, brain oxygen consumption resembles that of a waking state.
    C) Coma is neurologically identical to syncope.
    D) Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time.
    D) Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of ________.

    A) spinal cord disease
    B) Huntingtonʹs disease
    C) cerebellar disease
    D) Parkinsonʹs disease
    D) Parkinsonʹs disease
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Which is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury?

    A) hemorrhage
    B) swelling
    C) concussion
    D) contusion
    C) concussion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Declarative memory ________.

    A) is hard to unlearn when learned once
    B) usually involves motor skills
    C) is best remembered in the doing
    D) is the ability to learn specific information
    D) is the ability to learn specific information
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Which of the following is/are involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)?

    A) gustatory cortex
    B) Wernickeʹs area
    C) red nuclei
    D) postcentral gyrus
    C) red nuclei
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Which statement is not true?

    A) Ten-year-olds are in REM sleep about 1.5-2 hours per night.
    B) Half of infant sleep is composed of REM sleep.
    C) Sleep requirements decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again in old age.
    D) Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.
    D) Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?

    A) Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and tumor.
    B) Petit mal epilepsy typically begins in adolescence and is often severely disabling.
    C) The aura in grand mal epilepsy typically occurs as the patient regains consciousness.
    D) During seizures, sensory messages are processed normally but responses are blocked.
    A) Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and tumor.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. White matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations, with the exception of the ________.

    A) outer surface of the spinal cord
    B) corpus callosum
    C) corticospinal tracts
    D) cerebral cortex
    D) cerebral cortex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the ________.

    A) medulla
    B) spinal cord
    C) thalamus
    D) somatosensory cortex
    C) thalamus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the ________.

    A) rubrospinal tracts
    B) spinal cord
    C) premotor cortex
    D) primary motor cortex
    C) premotor cortex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. ________ waves are not normal for adults but are common for children.

    A) Alpha
    B) Theta
    C) Delta
    D) Beta
    B) Theta
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. The fourth ventricle is continuous with the ________ of the spinal cord.
    central canal
  66. The large tract that connects the right and left sides of the brain is called the ________.
    corpus callosum
  67. The ________ is a conduction pathway between higher and lower brain centers and houses nuclei for cranial nerves V-VII.
    pons
  68. The infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to the ________.
    pituitary gland
  69. The ________ are valvelike and protrude externally through the dura mater to absorb cerebrospinal fluid into venous blood.
    arachnoid villi
  70. Sensory neurons enter the spinal cord via the ________ horn.
    dorsal
  71. ________ memory requires practice, and is remembered by doing.
    Skill
  72. The ________ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
    diencephalon
  73. The two longitudinal ridges on the medulla oblongata where many descending fibers cross over are called the ________.
    pyramids
  74. The largest nuclear mass in the midbrain is the ________.
    substantia nigra
  75. In stage 3 sleep, ________ and ________ waves appear.
    theta; delta
  76. The ________ is the main switch station for memory; if the right and left areas are damaged, the past is lost.
    amygdala
  77. ________ rhythm is a 24-hour cycle of sleep and wakefulness.
    Circadian
  78. ________ is a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep found most commonly in the elderly.
    Sleep apnea
  79. NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stages, which appear to alternate. True or False
    True
  80. Petit mal seizures found in children generally go away with age. True or False
    True
  81. NREM sleep episodes are frequently associated with erection of the penis. True or False
    False
  82. A flat EEG is a good indication of deep sleep. True or False
    False
  83. Theta waves are a brain wave pattern that can be seen during deep sleep and during anesthesia. True or False
    False
  84. One disorder of the substantia nigra is Parkinsonʹs disease. True or False
    True
  85. Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. True or False
    True
  86. Meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons. True or False
    False
  87. The spinal cord ends at the level of L1. True or False
    True
  88. Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain. True or False
    True
  89. The terms fainting and syncope describe the same thing. True or False
    True
  90. The RAS is comprised of specific pathways primarily in the limbic system. True or False
    False
  91. Nondeclarative memories preserve the context in which they are learned. True or False
    False
  92. The first obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate. True or False
    True
  93. The left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant. True or False
    True
  94. The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain. True or False
    True
  95. The canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles and running through the midbrain is the foramen of Monro. True or False
    False
  96. Commissural fibers form the corpus striatum. True or False
    False
  97. A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei. True or False
    True
  98. Projection fibers in the brain connect the right and left hemispheres. True or False
    False
  99. Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to the other. True or False
    True
  100. The primary visual cortex contains a map of visual space. True or False
    True
  101. One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing. True or False
    True
  102. Sorting of sensory information and relaying it to the appropriate cerebral sensory area occurs in the hypothalamus. True or False
    False
  103. Sensory areas of the cortex for the genitals are located deep in the postcentral gyrus. True or False
    True
  104. Embryonic damage to the mesencephalon could result in improper formation of the midbrain. True or False
    True

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