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What is meant by a homologous series?
A homologous series is a series of molecules that have a general formula
What is the functional group for alcohols?
Alcohols contain the functional group: -O-H
What are the structural formulas for methanol, ethanol, propanol?
- Methanol = CH3OH
- Ethanol = CH3CH2OH
- Propanol = CH3CH2CH2OH
What is the functional group for carboxylic acids?
Carboxylic acids have the functional group of: -COOH
What are the structural formulas for Methanoic acid Ethanoic acid and Propanoic acid?
- Methanoic acid = HCOOH
- Ethanoic acid = CH3COOH
- Propanoic acid = CH3CH2COOH
What is the functional group for esters?
Esters have a fictional group of: -COO-
What is the structural formula for ethyl ethanoate?
The structural formula for ethyl ethanoate is: CH3COOCH2CH3
What are the properties of alcohols?
- Methanol, ethanol, propanol:
- Dissolve in water to form neutral solutions
- React with sodium to produce hydrogen
- Burn in air
What can methanol, ethanol, propanol be used as?
- Solvents in perfumes
- Ethanol is the main alcohol in alcoholic drinks
How is ethanol oxidised?
- Ethanol can be oxidised by chemical agents such as potassium dichromate to produce Ethanoic acid
- Using microbes in the air by exposing ethanol to the air
What is Ethanoic acid used for?
Ethanoic acid is the main acid in vinegar
What are the properties of carboxylic acids?
- Carboxylic acids:
- Dissolve in water to produce acidic solutions
- react with Carbonates to produce carbon dioxide
- reacts with alcohols in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce Esters
What are esters?
Esters are volatile compounds and have distinctive smell
What can esters be used for?
Some esters have pleasant fruity smells and are used as flavourings in perfumes
How is ethyl ethanoate produced?
Ethanol and Ethanoic acid react together using sulphuric if acid as a catalyst to produce ethyl ethanoate and water
Why are carboxylic acids weak acids?
- Carboxylic acids are weak acids as they do not ionise completely when dissolved in water
- this is because weak acids have a higher pH you react more slowly than strong acids in aqueous solutions of equal concentration