social influence.txt

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toricazaly
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220191
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social influence.txt
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2013-05-18 17:11:48
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Psychology
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PSY2A
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    • Moscovici 1969 - minority
    • Shows importance of consistency
    • It was a lab experiment
    • Group of 6 people asked to name the colour if slides that were various shades of blue
    • 2 of the 6 were conferates
    • When the cs answered green every time the ps also names it as green in 8% of trials
  1. Nemeth 1987 - minority social influence
    • Nemeth argued that flexibility is more important than consistency
    • Found that when te consistent minority give some way towards the.majority position he has more influence than when he remained consistent and refused to change his position
  2. AO2 minority influence
    • ps in lab exps are usually students - they are very different from minority groups in te.wider society who seek to change majority opinion and have something at stake
    • So limits the extent to which the findings can be generalized to real life settings
    • Also its to simplistic to assume that minority influence is demonstrated openly and immediately
    • The influence exerted by a minority may be hidden invisible to simplistic behavioural measures but still present
  3. The suffragettes minority influence
    • History has shown that a minority can be very persuasive
    • The suffragettes changed public and political opinion and eventually gained the women the vote
  4. The snowball effect - minority influence
    • If minority can get a few people on their sie more and more people change there opinion to that of the minority
    • The minority then begins to gather momentum (and then eventually become the majority viewpoint)
  5. Complicance
    Going along with others to gain approval and avoid their disapproval - no change in thoughts just their behaviour such as laughing at an unfunny joke
  6. Internalisation
    Going along with others as you accept their point of view - accept their view both in public and in private - eg changing religion
  7. Normative social influence
    The desire to be liked to be accepted and to avoid rejection - Complicance
  8. Informational social influence
    The desire to be right to have an accurate perception of reality - internalisation
  9. Asch - line study - Complicance
    • Male students in 'visual test'
    • Sat around a table 1 ps and 7 cf each had to say out.loud which of the three lines were the same as the standard line
    • Real ps answered last or second last
    • Of the 12 critical trials the participant conformed 37% of the time
  10. Ao2 Asch
    • Lab experiment
    • Only used male participants women are known to act differently and to generally be more compliant than men
    • On 2/3 of the trials where the majority gave the wrong answer the participants didn't conform - shows most inds are nother conformist
  11. Locus of control -general
    • Perception of how much control and individual has over an event in their life
    • Measured on a scale from right internal to high external
  12. Locus of control AO1
    • People with high internal LOC feel they are in control of the events in there lives and responsible for their actions
    • People with high external LOC feel the events in their lives are controled by external factors
    • Evidence shows that these high internal LOC show more independent behaviour - this may be because they have more self confidence to resist social influence
    • Those with high external LOC have lower self esteem and need Korea social approval
  13. Locus of control AO2
    • Migrams research shows that disobedient participants had Hugh internal LOC
    • BUT research has shown that the relationship between LOC and conformity is not as consistent - as it is not always linked
    • Measuring LOC is difficult - questionaires
    • Self esteem has been associated with individuals behaviour - high internal have high self esteem so hard to know if LOC or self esteem is a crucial factor
  14. Dissent AO1
    • Research shows conformity will be significantly reduced if the majority is not unanimous in its opinion
    • As soon as the unanimity of the majority group is weakened non conformity is likely to be seen
    • The dissenter represents a form of social support
    • It liberates the participants from the need to conform to the majority
  15. Dissent AO2
    • Support for the role comes from a variation of the Asch study
    • The presence of a dissenter was a crucial variable for increasing independent behaviour - when a confederate agreed with a participant conformity dropped by 5.5%
    • Even if the dissenter gave a different answer but still incorrect conformity decreases by 12%
    • Concluded that it is the unanimity of that group is crucial
  16. Legitimate authority AO1
    • most societies are ordered in a hierarchical way with some members having social powers
    • This power is held by authority figures whose role is defined by society
    • It is extremely difficult to deviate from social roles which are learnt through childhood
  17. Legitimate authority AO2
    • Supporting a variation - setting was changed from Yale university to a run down office block
    • Obedience rates dropped to 47% from 65% - because legitimate authority was diminished
    • Bickman 1974 - field experiment in new York 92% of pedestrians obeyed an order to give a stranger money for a parking meter when the researcher was dressed as a guard compared to 49% when dressed in civilian clothing
  18. Gradual commitment AO1
    • Migram had found that once participants had committed to lower levels of shocks they felt they had entered an agreement so were unable resist further demands (to give shocks at increasingly higher and higher levels)
    • Stopping was madras more difficult as there was a gradual transition from one shock to another
    • Known as the foot in the door approach once someone has signalled their willingness to agree to a small request their ability to refuse larger requests from the same source diminished
  19. Gradual commitment
    • Lifton 1986 found evidence of gradual commitment among the Nazi doctors first required to carry out sterilisation of individuals considered to be mentally defective and then to carry out increasingly extreme experiments in death camps
    • Also supported by the abusive behaviour of the guards in Abu Graib prison in iraq (it was gradual)

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