GOV 170 Final

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  1. Framing
    how individuals, groups, and societies organize, perceive, and communicate about reality.
  2. Stone Causal Theories
    causal theories used as a way of making an argument, i.e. what caused the deficit, what caused the financial panic.Way of framing the argument
  3. Policy Image
    The public’s view on a certainpolicy and it’s effectiveness.  Policyimage can be an indicator of future policy change if its image is one forchange.
  4. Policy Streams
    Ideas float in this stream. This stream includes policy entrepreneurs and policy analysts. The stream swells the “gradual accumulation of knowledge and perspectives among the specialist in a given policy area” (Kingdon) Many ideas get combined with others but only the good ideas survive while their origin is obscure.
  5. Focusing Events
    a disaster, crisis, personal experience, or powerful symbol that draws attention to some conditions more or subjects. Focusing events can push subjects higher on the agenda especially if they joined by another indicator.
  6. Target Population
    Groups of people who are to be reached through some action or intervention.  Groups are often defined by characteristics such as age, ethnicity, gender, or geographic location
  7. Framing of the poor
    5 frames of the poor include Misery and Neglect, Social Disorder, Economic and physical barriers, laziness and dysfunction, and cheating
  8. Policy Eras
    progressive era (turn of the century to the 1920s, dealing with problems created by industrialization), Conservative retrenchment (1920’s Harding, Coolidge and Hoover didn’t enforce policies, don’t create large government structures), New Deal (1930s, reconstruction after the great depression), 1950s (another conservative period, don’t create new things), 1960 (great society, creation of medicare, medicade, environmental policy). We see a cycle happening.
  9. Policy Regime Theory
    For Wilson regimes are made of power, Institutional (relationships), and paradigm (changes), stressors can cause changes in the regime.
  10. Stressors
    an be demographic shifts, mode of productionchange, economic dislocation, catastrophic events, new technologies, and international events. Ie. Newtown incident on gun control.
  11. President’s budget
    A document submitted annually (due by the first Monday in February) by the President to Congress. It sets forth the Administration's recommendations for the Federal budget for the upcoming fiscal year.
  12. Line-item budget
    A budget in which each expense is separatelyaccounted for. It is a budget with grouped cost centers or departments as individual financial statement items
  13. Budget inputs
    • all the resources that contribute to the production and delivery of outputs. Inputs are
    • "what we use to do the work". They include finances, personnel, equipment and buildings.
  14. Budget outputs
    the final products, or goods and services produced for delivery. Outputs may be defined as "what we produce or deliver". The products, capital goods and services which result from an input; may also include changes resulting from the iput which are relevant to the achievement of outcomes.
  15. Budget outcomes
    the medium-term results for specific beneficiaries that are the consequence of achieving specific outputs. Outcomes should relate clearly to an institution's strategic goals and objectives set out in its plans. Outcomes are "what we wish to achieve".
  16. Budget Deficit
    occurs when federal spending exceeds revenue.
  17. Budget Debt
    All the money borrowed by the federal government over the years and still standing.
  18. Uncontrolled expenditure
    Expenditures that are determined not by fixed amount of money appropriated by Congress but how many eligible beneficiaries there are for a program or by previous obligations of the government. I.e. Social Security
  19. Performance Budget
    Decisions made on these types of budgets focus more on outputs or outcomes of services than on decisions made based on inputs. In other words, allocation of funds and resources are based on their potential results
  20. PAYGO
    stands for “pay-as-you-go,” is a budget rule requiring that, relative to current law, any tax cuts or entitlement and other mandatory spending increases must be paid for by a tax increase or a cut in mandatory spending. The legislation must be paid for over two time periods: 1) the period of the current year, the budget year and the ensuing four fiscal years, and 2) the period of the current year, the budget year and the ensuing nine fiscal years.
  21. Budget Enforcement Act
    The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 was enacted by Congress to replace the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, also known as the Gramm-Rudman Hollings Act. The BEA was designed to combat persistent budget deficits that were being experienced by the American government from the 1980s through the l the 1990s
  22. Reconciliation
    legislative process of the United States Senate intended to allow consideration of a budget bill with debate limited to twenty hours under Senate rules. Reconciliation also exists in the United States House of Representatives, but because the House regularly passes rules that constrain debate and amendment, the process has had a less significant impact on that body
  23. Keynesianism
    Emerged with Roosevelt, solution to great depression, was to stimulate the economy ("inducement to invest") through some combination of two approaches: A reduction in interest rates (monetary policy), and Government investment in infrastructure (fiscalpolicy).
  24. Automatic stabilizers
    Economic policies and programs that are designed to offset fluctuations in a nations economic activity without intervention by the government or policymakers.
  25. Trust Funds
    Is a fund comprised of a variety of assets intended to provide benefits to an individual or organization.
  26. National debt
    Debt owed by the federal government, different than national deficit in that deficit looks at the difference between government receipts and spending in a given year
  27. Simpson-Bowles
    Created the zero plan, three main aspects to the plan were:

    1.Eliminate all tax expenditures—for both income and payroll taxes—except the EITC, the child credit, foreign tax credits, and a few less common preferences.

    2.Eliminate tax expenditures only for income taxes, not for payroll taxes.

    3.Eliminate tax expenditures only for income taxes—not for payroll taxes—but cap and restructure the tax benefits for mortgage interest, employer-sponsored health insurance, and retirement saving instead of eliminating them.
  28. TANF
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families - Federal assistance program started in 1997.  Provides cash assistance to American families with dependent children.  Known simply as “welfare”.  States have a large amount oflatitude in how they implement TANF programs, largely decide on who receives TANF funding.
  29. EITC
    Earned Income Tax Credit - a refundable tax credit for low to middle income individuals and families, primarily for those with qualifying children. This credit is provided to offset the burden of social security taxes and also to promote an incentive to work. In order for a person or couple to claim one or more persons as their qualifying child(ren), the age, relationship, and shared residency requirements must be met, as well as some other requirements. U.S. tax forms 1040EZ, 1040A, or 1040 can be used to claim EIC without qualifying children. To claim the credit with qualifying children, 1040A or 1040 must be used, as well as attaching Schedule EIC.
  30. Refundable tax credit
    A tax credit that is not limited by the amount of an individual tax liability. The earned income tax credit is a common example of a refundable credit.
  31. Social insurance
    An insurance program carried out or mandated by a government to provide economic assistance to the unemployed, the elderly, or the disabled. (MEDICARE&UNEMPLOYMENT)
  32. AIME
    Average Indexed Monthly Earnings, A calculation used to determine the Primary Insurance Amount (PIA) amount used to value an individual's social security benefits. The Average Indexed Monthly Earnings (AIME) takes your top 35 highest earning years up to age 60 and indexes it for wage growth, and then averages it to get a monthly amount. The AIME tries to approximate your earnings over your lifetime at today's wage levels.
  33. Payroll tax (FICA)
    These federal taxes on the payrolls of employers and employees fund Social Security, Medicare, and other social insurance programs. They are the second largest source of federal revenue after income taxes. 6.2% is for Social Security and 1.45% is for Medicare. The employer matches this. The Social Security payroll tax is for all income up to $113,700. There is no income cap for Medicare.
  34. Trust Fund
    A trust fund is an account established for deposit and disbursement of funds which are not controlled through the state budget process. The Social Security Trust Funds are the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) and the Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Funds. These funds are accounts managed by the Department of the Treasury. They serve two purposes: (1) they provide an accounting mechanism for tracking all income to and disbursements from the trust funds, and (2) they hold the accumulated assets. These accumulated assets provide automatic spending authority to pay benefits. The Social Security Act limits trust fund expenditures to benefits and administrative costs.
  35. Tax expenditures
    Revenue a government foregoes through the provisions of tax laws that allow (1) deductions, exclusions, or exemptions from the taxpayers’ taxable expenditure, income or investment, (2) deferral of tax liability or (3) preferential tax rates.
  36. Horizontal equity
    This is a principle that assumes that people in the same or similar positions (with regards to tax purposes) will be subject to the same tax liability. It is used to gauge whether tax burdens are distributed fairly.
  37. Vertical equity
    Is an economic concept related to taxation which states that different individuals have different ability to pay taxes and that those differences should be reflected in the amount of taxes paid. Meaning, those with more money should be forced to pay a higher amount in taxes than those with less income.
  38. Progressive tax
    A progressive tax is a tax rate applied to either income or profits, or spending, that increases as income/profits, or spending increases. This is the tax system used in the US, and in many other countries. Those who make the least amount of money tend to pay the lowest percentage of their income in taxes. People who make larger amounts of money are taxed at a higher percentage.
  39. Regressive tax
    This is where percentage of taxes decreases when income increases. This would mean people who make the most would pay a much lower percentage in taxes, but since their income is high, they’d still pay quite a bit in taxes. This system would mean that everyone would pay about the same amount in taxes each year
  40. Capital gains tax
    Is a type of tax levied on capital gains incurred by individuals and corporations. Capital gains are the profits that an investor gets when he or she sells the capital asset for a price that is higher than the purchase price. Capital gains taxes are only triggered when an asset is realized, not while it is held by the investor.
  41. HMOs
    Provides or arranges managed care for health insurance - acts as a liason with health care providers - i.e. Kaiser, Blue Cross.
  42. Medicare Part A
    Covers most medical costs associated with hospitalization  (i.e. surgery, intensive care, hospital-related diagnostic tests, prescription drugs) but doesn’t cover physician care...
  43. Medicare Part B
    associated with the poor with the idea that it would be primarily  for AFDC and SSI recipients- funding split between the federal government (pays more) and the state governments... most recipients are children.... low-income elderly, blind, physically and mentally disabled - covers most services
  44. Adverse selection
    The tendency of those who experience greater health risks to apply for and continue their coverage under any given health insurance plan. When adverse selection increases, health insurance companies experience greater expenses and may raise rates.
  45. Moral hazard
    When a party will have a tendency to take risk because the costs that could incur will not be felt by the party taking the risk
  46. Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    Part of President Johnson’s “War on Poverty” - funds primary and secondary education and emphasizes equal access to education and establishes high standards and accountability - aims to shorten the achievement gaps between students by providing each child with fair and equal opportunities
  47. No Child Left Behind
    Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act - supports standards based education reform - based on idea that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals can improve individual outcomes in education - requires states to develop assessments in basic skills
  48. Charter Schools
    community schools sponsored by state, local, private or nonprofit groups- have their own independent governing boards - they hire their own teachers and staff and develop their own curriculum - generally chartered because they offer something innovative and unique compared to public schools.
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GOV 170 Final
2013-05-18 22:44:41
Monica Elisa

GOV 170
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