Chapter 14 The Autonomic Nervous System (TB)

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lonelygirl
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220206
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Chapter 14 The Autonomic Nervous System (TB)
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2013-05-19 00:55:34
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103A
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  1. The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.

    A) parasympathetic innervation
    B) vagus nerve activity
    C) neurosecretory substances
    D) sympathetic stimulation
    D) sympathetic stimulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system ________.

    A) has two efferent neurons
    B) has two afferent neurons
    C) stimulates its effector cells
    D) has both afferent and efferent fibers
    A) has two efferent neurons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Preparing the body for the ʺfight-or-flightʺ response is the role of the ________.

    A) somatic nervous system
    B) parasympathetic nervous system
    C) sympathetic nervous system
    D) cerebrum
    C) sympathetic nervous system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by peripheral ganglia near the ________.

    A) organs and by short postganglionic fibers
    B) organs and by long postganglionic fibers
    C) spinal cord and by short postganglionic fibers
    D) spinal cord and by long postganglionic fibers
    A) organs and by short postganglionic fibers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.

    A) norepinephrine
    B) anticholinesterase
    C) epinephrine
    D) a beta-blocker
    D) a beta-blocker
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.

    A) pterygopalatine ganglion
    B) otic ganglion
    C) ciliary ganglion
    D) submandibular ganglion
    C) ciliary ganglion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.

    A) increase of heart rate and force
    B) constriction of most blood vessels
    C) dilation of the vessels serving the skeletal muscles
    D) dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
    D) dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.

    A) XII
    B) X
    C) V
    D) VII
    B) X
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The ʺresting and digestingʺ division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.

    A) sympathetic division
    B) parasympathetic division
    C) peripheral nervous system
    D) somatic division
    B) parasympathetic division
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.

    A) medulla
    B) hypothalamus
    C) cerebellum
    D) thalamus
    B) hypothalamus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

    A) most glands
    B) cardiac muscle
    C) smooth muscle
    D) skeletal muscle
    D) skeletal muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?

    A) dilation of the pupils
    B) salivation
    C) increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
    D) relaxation of the urethral sphincter
    A) dilation of the pupils
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the ________.

    A) thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord
    B) sympathetic chain
    C) higher brain centers
    D) brain stem and the sacral region of the cord
    D) brain stem and the sacral region of the cord
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.

    A) preganglionic fibers are long
    B) preganglionic fibers are short
    C) inactivation of ACh is fairly slow
    D) single preganglionic axons make multiple synapses with ganglionic neurons
    D) single preganglionic axons make multiple synapses with ganglionic neurons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebrae?

    A) first thoracic
    B) third lumbar
    C) first coccyx
    D) second cervical
    A) first thoracic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Autonomic ganglia contain ________.

    A) both somatic afferent and efferent neurons
    B) synapses between postganglionic fibers and their effectors
    C) the cell bodies of motor neurons
    D) an outer connective tissue capsule around the cell bodies of preganglionic motor neurons
    C) the cell bodies of motor neurons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the lens of the eye, the muscles that cause the eye to bulge to accommodate close vision.

    A) trochlear
    B) abducens
    C) optic
    D) oculomotor
    D) oculomotor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called ________.

    A) spinal nerves
    B) splanchnic nerves
    C) gray rami communicantes
    D) white rami communicantes
    B) splanchnic nerves
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?

    A) pulmonary
    B) esophageal
    C) cardiac
    D) celiac
    D) celiac
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.

    A) visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
    B) visceral arcs contain two sensory neurons
    C) visceral arcs do not use integration centers
    D) somatic arcs contain one additional component that visceral arcs do not possess
    A) visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. The parasympathetic tone ________.

    A) determines normal activity of the urinary tract
    B) accelerates activity of the digestive tract
    C) causes blood pressure to rise
    D) prevents unnecessary heart deceleration
    A) determines normal activity of the urinary tract
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The autonomic nervous system ________.

    A) cannot be self-controlled
    B) is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem
    C) is not affected by drugs
    D) has one primary division
    B) is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. The white rami ________.

    A) carry postganglionic fibers to the periphery
    B) carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
    C) are found only in the C1‐T1 cord segments
    D) are unmyelinated
    B) carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Beta-blockers ________.

    A) have widespread sympathetic effects
    B) attach mainly to the β1 receptors of cardiac muscle
    C) increase a dangerously low heart rate
    D) are potent antidepressants
    B) attach mainly to the β1 receptors of cardiac muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.

    A) is primarily under parasympathetic control
    B) depends very little on autonomic activation
    C) is primarily under sympathetic control
    D) is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input
    A) is primarily under parasympathetic control
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?

    A) regulation of body temperature
    B) regulation of cardiac rate
    C) regulation of respiratory rate
    D) regulation of pupil size
    A) regulation of body temperature
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Raynaudʹs disease ________.

    A) is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
    B) is induced by heat stress
    C) occurs primarily in association with injury to the spinal cord
    D) is frequently life-threatening
    A) is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. The mass reflex reaction ________.

    A) represents a return of reflex activity with no controls from higher centers
    B) results from overexcitatory input from the cortex
    C) is also known as autonomic areflexia
    D) usually precedes spinal shock
    A) represents a return of reflex activity with no controls from higher centers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. In congenital megacolon (Hirschsprungʹs disease) ________.

    A) feces are forced out of the colon prematurely
    B) medication usually returns the abnormal segment of the colon to normal
    C) sympathetic innervation of a segment of the colon fails to develop
    D) the distal portion of the large intestine fails to develop parasympathetic innervation
    D) the distal portion of the large intestine fails to develop parasympathetic innervation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.

    A) clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
    B) cerebral hemorrhage
    C) major loss of axons
    D) peripheral vascular changes
    A) clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the ________.

    A) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine
    B) craniosacral region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine
    C) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine
    D) craniosacral regions, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine
    C) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?

    A) close to the visceral effectors they serve
    B) in the armpit
    C) in the cervical region
    D) in the head
    B) in the armpit
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.

    A) increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
    B) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
    C) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
    D) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
    D) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.

    A) tenth cranial nerve
    B) cephalic plexus
    C) lumbar splanchnic nerves
    D) pelvic nerves
    A) tenth cranial nerve
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is the ________.

    A) vagus nerve
    B) sympathetic trunk
    C) phrenic nerve
    D) sacral nerve
    A) vagus nerve
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Parasympathetic functions include ________.

    A) a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction
    B) allowing the body to cope with an external threat
    C) mobilizing storage energy sources
    D) constriction of bronchioles
    D) constriction of bronchioles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. All preganglionic axons of the autonomic nervous system release ________.

    A) the same transmitter as the only one released by the sympathetic postganglionic axons
    B) serotonin
    C) the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons
    D) dopamine
    C) the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.

    A) lateral geniculate of the thalamus
    B) inferior colliculus
    C) hypothalamus
    D) lateral horn of the spinal cord
    C) hypothalamus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. The possibility of control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.

    A) biofeedback
    B) split brain studies
    C) nightmares
    D) stress-induced hypertension
    A) biofeedback
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.

    A) pancreas
    B) parotid gland
    C) kidneys
    D) gallbladder
    B) parotid gland
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. The sympathetic division is referred to as the ________ system.
    fight-or-flight
  42. Two major classes of adrenergic receptors, ________ and ________ are found in the ANS.
    alpha; beta
  43. The ________ division causes erection of the penis and clitoris.
    parasympathetic
  44. Sweat glands are innervated by the ________ fibers alone.
    sympathetic
  45. The ________ division alone stimulates the lens of the eye.
    parasympathetic
  46. The two cholinergic receptor types are ________ and ________.
    nicotinic; muscarinic
  47. The ________ receptor type is used by the heart, and when activated increases heart rate.
    β1
  48. The only sympathetic preganglionic neuron to go directly to an organ is one branch of the ________ splanchnic nerve.
    greater
  49. Pain from the diaphragm will be referred to the anterior cutaneous area of the ________.
    neck
  50. The parasympathetic division uses only ________ as a neurotransmitter in the ganglionic neurons.
    acetylcholine
  51. Since the ANS is a visceral motor system, afferent pathways are of no importance and actually are rarely found. True or False
    False
  52. The rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division of the ANS. True or False
    True
  53. The gray rami communicantes consist of myelinated postganglionic fibers. True or False
    False
  54. Splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves. True or False
    False
  55. The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected. True or False
    True
  56. The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic division. True or False
    True
  57. The sympathetic chain is composed of collateral ganglia. True or False
    True
  58. Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous division. True or False
    True
  59. Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control. True or False
    True
  60. Alpha-adrenergic effects are usually stimulatory and mediatory. True or False
    True
  61. The adrenal medulla is considered a ʺmisplacedʺ sympathetic ganglion by some. True or False
    True
  62. Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatic efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve fiber endings. True or False
    True
  63. Most body organs are innervated by only the sympathetic division of the nervous system. True or False
    False
  64. Through direct neural stimulation, the sympathetic division promotes many metabolic effects via hormone release. True or False
    True
  65. Cranial nerves VII, IX, and X contain postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system. True or False
    False
  66. In contrast to the parasympathetic division, the sympathetic division has numerous ganglionic neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord. True or False
    False
  67. Norepinephrine-releasing fibers are called cholinergic fibers. True or False
    False
  68. The parasympathetic division is a branch of the somatic nervous system. True or False
    False
  69. The craniosacral division is the same as the parasympathetic division. True or False
    True
  70. The chain ganglion, like the dorsal root ganglion, contains soma from sensory neurons. True or False
    False
  71. Most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone. True or False
    True
  72. The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body where the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. True or False
    False
  73. Events recorded in a lie detector examination are controlled by the sympathetic division. True or False
    True
  74. All splanchnic nerves are sympathetic. True or False
    False
  75. Splanchnic nerves pass through the abdominal aortic plexus. True or False
    True
  76. The structures that specifically exhibit vasomotor tone are mostly under sympathetic control. True or False
    True
  77. Since many of the same cardiac cells are innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers, the influence of the two divisions on the heart is synergistic. True or False
    False
  78. β-adrenergic receptors are the only receptors found on the heart. True or False
    False
  79. Autonomic reflex centers occur in the spinal cord, medulla, and midbrain. True or False
    True

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