Earth Science 2

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Earth Science 2
2013-05-19 02:45:12
Earth science earth jcs mhsa

Earth Science study guide for semester 2
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  1. The existence of coal beds in Antarctica indicates that the continent once had _______.
    a temperate, rainy climate
  2. ______ is a fossil fern that helped support Wegener's hypothesis of continental drift.
  3. At an oceanic-oceanic convergent boundary,______.
    old crust is recycled by subduction
  4. Convection currents transfer thermal energy ____.
    from warmer regions to cooler regions
  5. The downward part of a convection current causes a sinking force that _____.
    pulls tectonic plates towards one another
  6. Many early mapmakers thought Earth's continents had moved based on _______.
    matching coastlines
  7. Compared to ocean crust near deep-sea trenches, crust near ocean ridges is ____.
  8. Isochron maps of the seafloor indicated that ocean crust is ______.
    youngest near ocean ridges
  9. Each cycle of spreading and intrusion of magma during seafloor spreading results in _____.
    new ocean crust
  10. Features found at divergent boundaries include ____.
    ocean ridges
  11. Subduction results in the formation of ______.
    a deep-sea trench
  12. Crust is neither destroyed nor formed along which of the following boundaries?
  13. The driving forces of tectonic plates are related to convection currents in Earth's _____.
  14. Most volcanoes occur ____.
    along convergent boundaries
  15. Which of the following are landscape features associated with volcanoes?
    Vents, craters, and calderas
  16. Volcanism that occurs under water along mid-ocean ridges is _______.
    rift volcanism
  17. Which group consists only of nonrenewable resources?
    natural gas, peat, coal, oil
  18. Which group consists only of renewable resources?
    phosphorus, soil, water, oxygen
  19. The largest component of air is _____.
  20. About 80 percent of the freshwater used for _____ is wasted.
    irrigating crops
  21. In anthracite coal, concentrations of carbon are about _____.
    90 percent
  22. Which of the following does NOT require the Sun's energy?
    All of the above require the Sun's energy.
  23. Our timekeeping system is based on the _____.
    solar day
  24. Earth's tilt in combination with its orbit around the Sun cause the _______.
  25. Bodies of interplanetary debris that orbit the sun with most in the area between Mars and Jupiter are called _____.
  26. Small, icy bodies that have highly eccentric orbits and can be found in the Oort cloud or the Kuiper belt are called _____.
  27. Interplanetary material that enters the Earth's atmosphere and collides with the ground rather than burning up is called a ______.
  28. The eccentric orbit of ____ is 50 AU from the Sun at aphelion and almost 30 AU from the Sun   at perihelion.
  29. What two gas giants appear blue because of the methane in their atmosphere?
    Neptune and Uranus
  30. What causes the sideways push that is responsible for precession?
    the Moon's gravitational force on Earth
  31. The apparent shift in a star's position caused by the motion of the observer is called ______.
  32. The ____ of a star determines its temperature, luminosity, and diameter.
  33. Only ten percent of a star's mass undergoes fusion because temperatures outside of the core _______.
    never get hot enough for reactions to occur
  34. Following the end of each reaction stage, a massive star becomes a _____ several times.
    red giant
  35. The main sequence of a low-mass star is ____ the lifetime of a star.
    much longer than
  36. Elliptical galaxies are divided into subclasses based on _____.
    the ratio of their major and minor axes
  37. Cosmic background radiation has a wavelength of approximately 1mm, which makes it ________.
    microwave radiation
  38. A turbidity current can form a ______.
    submarine canyon
  39. The shallowest parts of the ocean are the ____.
    continental margins
  40. A large, extinct, basaltic volcano with a flat, submerged top is called a _____.
  41. The submerged parts of of continents are called _____.
    continental margins
  42. A rapid, flowing current along the bottom of the ocean is a ______.
    turbidity current
  43. _____ and the amount of stain released during the last quake are used in earthquake probability study.
    Strain accumulation
  44. On a seismometer, vibrations on the ground do not move the ______.
    suspended mass
  45. The San Andreas Fault, a result of horizontal shear, is a ______ fault.
  46. Deaths associated with earthquake deaths in sloping areas can result from ______.
  47. Wegener's hypothesis of _________ stated that Earth's continents had once been joined as a single landmass.
    continental drift
  48. The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of heated matter is ______.
  49. Some countries use _______ to create freshwater from ocean water.
  50. All types of electromagnetic radiation, arranged according to wavelength or frequency, form the _____________.
    electromagnetic spectrum
  51. One difference between the Moon's surface and the surface of Earth is that the Moon has no _____.
  52. The theory that suggests the Moon was formed about the same time as Earth, and from similar materials, is called ________.
    simultaneous formation theory
  53. Different seasons occur because of ________ and Earth's orbital motion around the Sun.
    Earth's tilt
  54. The terrestrial planets are close to the size of Earth and have _______ surfaces, while the gas giant planets are larger, more gaseous, and ______.
    solid and rocky ; lack solid surfaces
  55. The gas giants are composed primarily of lightweight elements, such as __________
    helium, hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. (H, He, C, O, N)
  56. The rapid rotation of the largest gas giant _______, causes its clouds to flow in alternating cloud types called _____________.
    Jupiter; belts and zones
  57. Pluto is not classified as a planet because its _________________.
    low density and small size
  58. Because the ___________ contains 99 percent of the mass in the solar system, it controls the motion of the planets.
  59. The __________ flows outward from the corona to the entire solar system.
    solar wind
  60. _________ are perhaps the flattest places on Earth and are covered with hundreds of meters of fine-grained sediments and sedimentary rocks.
    Abyssal plains
  61. Submarine canyons are formed by _______.
    turbidity currents
  62. Most geologists hypothesize that oil formed from organic material deposited in __________.
    shallow seas.
  63. Energy sources known as ________ formed over thousands or millions of years from the compression and decomposition of organic matter.
    fossil fuels
  64. Rapidly moving volcanic material
    pyroclastic flow
  65. Location of rift or divergent volcanism.
    Mid- Atlantic Ridge
  66. Cloud of interstellar gas and dust that collapses in on itself to create a new star.
  67. Group of bright stars named for an animal, a mythological character, or an everyday object.
  68. Section of the H-R diagram into which about 90 percent of the stars fall.
    main sequence
  69. Small, massive dense object that has a gravity so immense that nothing - not even light - can escape it.
    black hole
  70. Igneous intrusion into surrounding rock.
  71. Process of combining lightweight nuclei to make heavier nuclei.