Earth Science 2
Card Set Information
Earth Science 2
Earth science earth jcs mhsa
Earth Science study guide for semester 2
The existence of coal beds in Antarctica indicates that the continent once had _______.
a temperate, rainy climate
______ is a fossil fern that helped support Wegener's hypothesis of continental drift.
At an oceanic-oceanic convergent boundary,______.
old crust is recycled by subduction
Convection currents transfer thermal energy ____.
from warmer regions to cooler regions
The downward part of a convection current causes a sinking force that _____.
pulls tectonic plates towards one another
Many early mapmakers thought Earth's continents had moved based on _______.
Compared to ocean crust near deep-sea trenches, crust near ocean ridges is ____.
Isochron maps of the seafloor indicated that ocean crust is ______.
youngest near ocean ridges
Each cycle of spreading and intrusion of magma during seafloor spreading results in _____.
new ocean crust
Features found at divergent boundaries include ____.
Subduction results in the formation of ______.
a deep-sea trench
Crust is neither destroyed nor formed along which of the following boundaries?
The driving forces of tectonic plates are related to convection currents in Earth's _____.
Most volcanoes occur ____.
along convergent boundaries
Which of the following are landscape features associated with volcanoes?
Vents, craters, and calderas
Volcanism that occurs under water along mid-ocean ridges is _______.
Which group consists only of nonrenewable resources?
natural gas, peat, coal, oil
Which group consists only of renewable resources?
phosphorus, soil, water, oxygen
The largest component of air is _____.
About 80 percent of the freshwater used for _____ is wasted.
In anthracite coal, concentrations of carbon are about _____.
Which of the following does NOT require the Sun's energy?
All of the above require the Sun's energy.
Our timekeeping system is based on the _____.
Earth's tilt in combination with its orbit around the Sun cause the _______.
Bodies of interplanetary debris that orbit the sun with most in the area between Mars and Jupiter are called _____.
Small, icy bodies that have highly eccentric orbits and can be found in the Oort cloud or the Kuiper belt are called _____.
Interplanetary material that enters the Earth's atmosphere and collides with the ground rather than burning up is called a ______.
The eccentric orbit of ____ is 50 AU from the Sun at aphelion and almost 30 AU from the Sun at perihelion.
What two gas giants appear blue because of the methane in their atmosphere?
Neptune and Uranus
What causes the sideways push that is responsible for precession?
the Moon's gravitational force on Earth
The apparent shift in a star's position caused by the motion of the observer is called ______.
The ____ of a star determines its temperature, luminosity, and diameter.
Only ten percent of a star's mass undergoes fusion because temperatures outside of the core _______.
never get hot enough for reactions to occur
Following the end of each reaction stage, a massive star becomes a _____ several times.
The main sequence of a low-mass star is ____ the lifetime of a star.
much longer than
Elliptical galaxies are divided into subclasses based on _____.
the ratio of their major and minor axes
Cosmic background radiation has a wavelength of approximately 1mm, which makes it ________.
A turbidity current can form a ______.
The shallowest parts of the ocean are the ____.
A large, extinct, basaltic volcano with a flat, submerged top is called a _____.
The submerged parts of of continents are called _____.
A rapid, flowing current along the bottom of the ocean is a ______.
_____ and the amount of stain released during the last quake are used in earthquake probability study.
On a seismometer, vibrations on the ground do not move the ______.
The San Andreas Fault, a result of horizontal shear, is a ______ fault.
Deaths associated with earthquake deaths in sloping areas can result from ______.
Wegener's hypothesis of _________ stated that Earth's continents had once been joined as a single landmass.
The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of heated matter is ______.
Some countries use _______ to create freshwater from ocean water.
All types of electromagnetic radiation, arranged according to wavelength or frequency, form the _____________.
One difference between the Moon's surface and the surface of Earth is that the Moon has no _____.
The theory that suggests the Moon was formed about the same time as Earth, and from similar materials, is called ________.
simultaneous formation theory
Different seasons occur because of ________ and Earth's orbital motion around the Sun.
The terrestrial planets are close to the size of Earth and have _______ surfaces, while the gas giant planets are larger, more gaseous, and ______.
solid and rocky ; lack solid surfaces
The gas giants are composed primarily of lightweight elements, such as __________
helium, hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. (H, He, C, O, N)
The rapid rotation of the largest gas giant _______, causes its clouds to flow in alternating cloud types called _____________.
Jupiter; belts and zones
Pluto is not classified as a planet because its _________________.
low density and small size
Because the ___________ contains 99 percent of the mass in the solar system, it controls the motion of the planets.
The __________ flows outward from the corona to the entire solar system.
_________ are perhaps the flattest places on Earth and are covered with hundreds of meters of fine-grained sediments and sedimentary rocks.
Submarine canyons are formed by _______.
Most geologists hypothesize that oil formed from organic material deposited in __________.
Energy sources known as ________ formed over thousands or millions of years from the compression and decomposition of organic matter.
Rapidly moving volcanic material
Location of rift or divergent volcanism.
Mid- Atlantic Ridge
Cloud of interstellar gas and dust that collapses in on itself to create a new star.
Group of bright stars named for an animal, a mythological character, or an everyday object.
Section of the H-R diagram into which about 90 percent of the stars fall.
Small, massive dense object that has a gravity so immense that nothing - not even light - can escape it.
Igneous intrusion into surrounding rock.
Process of combining lightweight nuclei to make heavier nuclei.