# NLC.txt

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1. When would DC transmission be used?
To move large blocks of power over long distances.
2. Name the common transmission voltages.
765 kV     500 kV     345 kV     230 kV
3. Your internal believe regarding safety issues.
Safety Attitude
4. SAIDI
System Average Interruption Duration Index
5. NERC
North American Electric Reliability Corporation, overseas 10 reliability councils, nine in the US and one in Canada.
6. Name the common distribution voltages.
2.4 kV / 4.16 kV     7.2 kV / 12.470 kV     7.62 kV / 13.2 kV     12 kV / 20.8 kV     14.4 kV / 24.5 kV     19.9 kV / 34.5 kV
7. What is the common transmission voltage range?
230 kV to 765 kV
8. What is the common sub-transmission voltage range?
44 kV to 138 kV
9. What is the common distribution voltage range?
2 kV to 34.5 kV
10. Used to isolate electrical energy from ground.
Insulator
11. Voltage measured between phases.
System Voltage
12. Intentionally connected to earth through ground connection.
Grounded
13. Optimum voltage range for generation.
13.8 kV to 24 kV
14. Who is the customer?
Utilities and the utility rate payers.
15. What are the three primary functions of substations?
1. To change the voltage of circuits from one level to another.

2. To connect or disconnect lines or equipment from each other.

3. To control the flow of power by adjusting the voltage and current.
16. A unit of measure for the amount of power that can be delivered to a load.
Kilovolt-Ampere or kVA
17. The network of interconnected transmission lines.
"The Grid"
18. Unit of measure for the flow of electrons or current. Represented by the letter "I" on Ohm's wheel.
Amperage
19. Electrically connected to a source of potential difference, or electrically charged to have a potential significantly different from that of Earth.
Alive, Live, or Energized
20. Compilation of conductors and electrical components that allow current to pass from a source to a load.
Circuit
21. Allows current to flow with essentially no resistance.
Conductor
22. ANSI Z-87.1
Covers safety glasses.
23. Providing people with what they need in a gracious and helping manner.
Customer Service
24. Opposition to current flow in an electrical circuit. Measured in ohms ( Ω ) and represented with an "R" on Ohm's wheel.
Resistance
25. A device that increases or decreases voltage.
Transformer
26. Voltage measured between a phase and neutral.
Line Voltage
27. The location in an electrical system where there is a change in ownership.
Demarcation Point
28. A circuit were voltage is constant.
Direct Current or DC
29. Unit of measure for frequency. In AC, the number of complete rotations of the generator in a second. The frequency of AC power in the US and Canada is 60 ____.
Hertz
30. NESC
National Electric Safety Code, developed to enhance public and worker safety. It applies to lines and power stations in the US.
31. Unit of measure for electrical pressure. Commonly referred to as potential. Represented as "E" on Ohm's wheel.
Voltage
32. CAIDI
Customer Average Interruption Duration Index
33. The conversion of electrical energy into another form of useful energy.
Power
34. Unit of measure for electrical power.
Watt
35. SAIFI
System Average Interruption Frequency Index
36. ANSI Z-89.1
Covers hard hats.
37. Where a source of energy is converted into electrical energy.
Generation Station
38. Name the common service voltages.
120/240 120/208 240/480 480 277/480 volts
39. A conductor that supplies power to a load.
Phase
40. A term that refers to the voltage when measuring the difference between two points.
Potential
41. Unit of measure of resistance in an electrical circuit.
Ohms Ω
42. The ability of one coil or conductor to induce voltage into another coil or conductor. Each coil shares the same core.
Mutual Induction
43. A conductor that provides a ground reference for the load.
Neutral
44. What Council are we in and name a connecting Council.
Idaho is in the WSCC, and connects to MAPP, SPP, and ERCOL.
45. A pole structure that has a longer life span and is considered more aesthetically pleasing.
Tubular Steel Pole Structure
46. What considerations are taken into account when selecting a conductor type and size?
• 1. How much power the line needs to carry
• 2. Length of the line
• 3. Span lengths
• 4. Weather (environment)
• 5. Line losses
• 6. Cost of the conductor
47. Cuts in or out a portion of the transformer winding which adjusts the voltage to the conditions.
48. Used to connect and disconnect lines and equipment by interrupting large amounts of current.
Circuit Breakers
49. One or two smaller conductors that run parallel to the phases and are fastened to the top of the poles. These conductors are grounded.
Shield Wires or Static Wires
50. A waste of power in which the air around the conductor is ionized, accompanied by an audible and sometimes visible glowing effect.
Corona Loss
51. A transmission structure with an operating voltage of 345 kV or below. Construction is relatively simple but structures require testing and treating of pole butts.
Wood Pole Structures
52. More than one conductor per phase.
Bundled Conductors
53. What is the formula for sling tension?
Sling length over sling height times weight over number of slings.

54. How do you calculate hook strain?
Haul line (weight you are pulling) + weight of load
55. What is the formula for calculating haul line tension?
1.1 to the P power times W, over P. Where P equals parts and W equals weight.

56. Why are bundled conductors used?
• 1. To increase capacity
• 3. Reduce Corona loss
57. What is the main objective for all transmission lines?
To deliver power with a minimum of loss.
58. The power to take property for the good of the general public following the payment or just compensation to the owner of the property.
Eminent Domain
59. The right to access property for the construction or maintenance of lines, structures, or components. May take form of easements or ownership of the land.
Right-of-way
60. The popular choice for structures carrying 345 kV or greater. Built from pieces of angled steel bolted together.
Lattice Type Steel Structure
61. A circuit that provides more than one path for current to flow.
Parallel
62. A deep-seated personal belief that is never compromised.
Value
63. Point at which power is produced.
Source
64. Name the common sub-transmission voltages.
44 kV 69 kV 115 kV 138 kV
65. A circuit that only provides one path for current to flow. The current remains constant but the voltage drops through resistance.
Series
66. Excessive current flow in a circuit where the load is bypassed. A short circuited condition.
Fault Current
67. The point at which the power is used. The area of demand or customers.
68. Power produced by rotating a magnetic field near a conductor. The electrons in the conductor pulsate back and forth at a certain rate measured in hertz. Voltage is not constant.
Alternating current or AC
69. The simultaneous generation of electricity and useful thermal energy.
Co-generation
70. What is the formula for determining the weight of a cylindrical material?
71. What is the formula for determining the weight of a square or rectangular material?
Weight = Length X Width X Height X Weight of Material
72. When a rope is pulled tight very quickly and with great force, resulting in a substantial increase in weight or tension.
73. What is the formula for RWLL?
74. The maximum load that can be applied to a rope while ensuring longevity and taking the efficiency of any knots tied in the rope into account.
Reduced Working Load Limit or RWLL
75. The maximum load applied to a rope to ensure longevity of the rope.
76. An arbitrary number determined by your company which is used to determine the working load limit, five is common in this industry.  It commonly ranges from 5-9.
Design Factor
77. The average force in pounds needed to break a rope, as determined by the manufacturer.
Catalog Breaking Strength or CBS
78. List the common sling configurations from strongest to weakest.
• Vertical
• Choker
79. In parted blocks, friction overcomes the mechanical advantage after ____ parts, causing haul line tension to begin to rise.
10 parts
80. When referring to parted blocks, the _____ end should have the haul line coming out of it and the _____ end should be attached to the load.
• Standing
• Running
81. Name the parts of parted blocks.
• Hook
• Safety Latch
• Swivel
• Shell
• Sheaves
• Center Pin
• Becket
• Parts
• Haul Line
82. Where is the weight rating located on parted blocks?
The hook and the shell.
83. What is the typical line loss in a DC transmission system?
4%
84. What is the typical line loss in an AC transmission system?
9%
85. A tag that contains important information about electrical equipment such as a transformers weight.
Nameplate
86. What is the main function of a transmission system?
To deliver large blocks of power from a source to the load.
87. What is the main determination for the size of an insulator?
The voltage
88. What is one individual conductor called in bundled conductor?
Sub-conductor
89. Do bundled conductors allow more amperage or voltage?
Amperage
90. The main objective of delivering power with a minimum of loss has a major bearing on the selection of a voltage level when engineering a transmission line.  What other considerations are taken into account?
• Length of the line
• Amount of power to be delivered
• Voltage of existing system
• Cost of losses
91. What is the main function of a shield wire?
To provide lightning a path to ground.
92. The type of transmission that is used in large cities where right-of-way is very expensive.
Underground Transmission
93. What considerations are taken into account when determining the size of the right-of-way?
• Voltage
• The type of structure
• Horizontal movement of the phase conductors
• The level of the magnetic field
94. What must the right-of-way be cleared of?
• Trees
• Vegetation
95. What factors are taken into account when choosing a transmission structure?
• Voltage of the line
• Right-of-way size
• geographical terrain
• weather
• size of conductor
• whether two circuits are needed right away or in the future
96. Name the four types of insulators commonly used on transmission lines.
• Porcelain suspension insulators
• Porcelain line post insulators
• Polymer suspension insulators
• Polymer line post insulators
97. A suspension insulator hanging in a deadend configurations would require a higher ______.
Mechanical rating
98. Higher voltages require a larger right-of-way, larger structures, more insulation, and generally, more overall _____ per mile.
Expense
99. The inner portion of the shield wire contains a fiber optic cable.  The fiber optic conductor will provide capacity for _____ and ______ communications.
• Voice
• Data
100. The term substation is used synonymously with ______ station and _______ station.
• Power
• Supply
101. Transmission substations that only have equipment that can connect or disconnect lines or equipment are commonly referred to as _________.
Switching Stations
102. The substation where voltage is generally stepped up.
Generation Substation
103. Transmission substations are typically installed to change the voltage levels to help ________ a system.
Integrate
104. These substations are generally located in the load center.
Distribution substations
105. These substations are typically located near a large load center.
Sub-transmission substations
106. Used to isolate lines and equipment in the substation.
Disconnect switches.
107. Provide a reduction in the voltage and current so the power flow can be measured.
Current and Potential Transformers
108. The devices in the substation that sense abnormal flows of voltage and current, which is used to disconnect lines and equipment during trouble conditions.
Current and Potential Transformers
109. These devices are connected and disconnected from the system based on the dynamics of the flow of power.
Capacitors and Reactors
110. These devices automatically adjust the voltage as required in the absence of an LTC.
Voltage regulators
111. What are the four things you would find in the control house according to the book?
• Relays
• Meters
• Computers
• Backup DC batteries
112. What does the ground grid provide a ground reference source for?
Transformers, neutral conductor, and other station equipment.
113. The ground grid ensures the safety of the workers inside the station and the public who may be near the fence by limiting the ground _______ differences.
potential
114. What are the five environmental considerations that are a major factor in the siting, constructions, and operation of a substation?
• Appearance of the substation
• Electromagnetic fields
• Sound
• Oil Spill Containment
• Fencing
 Author: ih8crak ID: 220226 Card Set: NLC.txt Updated: 2013-05-25 07:53:16 Tags: ih8crak Folders: Description: ih8crak Show Answers: