Tissues and Joints

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Author:
elby317
ID:
22025
Filename:
Tissues and Joints
Updated:
2010-06-06 11:47:11
Tags:
Anatomy
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Description:
Characteristics and types of tissue and joints
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  1. Connective tissue
    tissue that is not exposed outside the body
  2. Components of connective tissue
    • SPG
    • Specialized cells (in blood, bones, cartilage)
    • Extracellular protein fibers
    • Ground substance
  3. Examples of extracellular protein fibers
    • elastin
    • collagen
    • fibrin
  4. Functions of connective tissue
    • Provide support and protection
    • Transport materials
    • Store mechanical energy reserves
    • Perform regulatory functions
  5. What is a joint?
    Where two bones meet
  6. Classes of joints
    • Structural
    • Functional
  7. Types of Structural Joints and examples
    • Fibrous (sutures of the skull)
    • Cartilaginous (intervertebral disks)
    • Synovial (hip, elbow)
  8. Types of Functional Joints and examples
    • Immovable (synarthroses)
    • Slightly moveable (amphiarthroses)
    • Freely moveable (diarthroses or synovial joints)
  9. Types of Synovial Joints
    • (BC-GH-PS)
    • Ball and Socket
    • Condyloid
    • Gliding
    • Hinge
    • Pivot
    • Saddle
  10. Example of Ball and Socket joint
    • Hip
    • Shoulder
  11. Movements of ball and socket joint
    • Circumduction
    • rotation
    • angular in all planes
  12. Example of condyloid joint
    wrist (radiocarpal)
  13. Movements of condyloid joint
    • circumduction
    • abduction
    • adduction
    • flexion
    • extension
  14. Example of Gliding joint
    ankle (subtalar)
  15. movements of gliding joint
    • inversion
    • eversion
  16. Examples of hinge joint
    • Knee
    • Elbow
  17. Movements in hinge joint
    flexion and extension in one plane
  18. Examples of Pivot Joint
    Atlas/axis
  19. Movements of pivot joint
    rotation around central axis
  20. Example of saddle joints
    • thumb
    • big toe
  21. movements of saddle joint
    • flexion
    • extension
    • abduction
    • adduction
    • circumduction
    • opposition
  22. Characteristics of synovial joints
    • Bony surfaces are covered with articular cartilage;
    • Surrounding the joint is a fibrous joint capsule;
    • Ligaments join bone to bone;
    • Inner surfaces of joint cavity are lined with synovial membranes;
    • Synovial fluid from the membrane provides lubrication for joint;
    • Some contain fibrocarilaginous disks (knee);
    • Bursae reduce friction and act as shock absorbers
  23. Movements of Synovial Joint
    • Angular movements
    • Circular movements
    • Special movements
  24. Angular movements and examples
    • decrease or increase joint angle
    • flexion;
    • extension;
    • hyperextension;
    • abduction;
    • adduction
  25. Circular movements and examples
    • Occur at joints with rounded surface articulating with the depression of another bone;
    • Rotation;
    • Circumduction;
  26. Special movements
    • inversion;
    • eversion;
    • retraction;
    • elevation;
    • depression

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