Gov 170 Final

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  1. Framing
    how individuals, groups, and societies organize, perceive, and communicate about reality.
  2. Stone Causal Theories
    causal theories used as a way of making an argument, i.e. what caused the deficit, what caused the financial panic.  Way of framing the argument
  3. Policy Image
    The public’s view on a certain policy and it’s effectiveness.  Policy image can be an indicator of future policy change if its image is one for change.
  4. Policy Streams
    Ideas float in this stream. This stream includes policy entrepreneurs and policy analysts. The stream swells the “gradual accumulation of knowledge and perspectives among the specialist in a given policy area” (Kingdon) Many ideas get combined with others but only the good ideas survive while their origin is obscure.
  5. Focusing Events
    a disaster, crisis, personal experience, or powerful symbol that draws attention to some conditions more or subjects. Focusing events can push subjects higher on the agenda especially if they joined by another indicator.
  6. Target Population
    Groups of people who are to be reached through some action or intervention.  Groups are often defined by characteristics such as age, ethnicity, gender, or geographic location
  7. Framing of the poor
    paper by Rose and Bumgartner, 5 frames of the poor include Misery and Neglect, Social Disorder, Economic and physical barriers, laziness and dysfunction, and cheating
  8. Policy Eras
    progressive era (turn of the century to the 1920s, dealing with problems created by industrialization), Conservative retrenchment (1920’s Harding, Coolidge and Hoover didn’t enforce policies, don’t create large government structures), New Deal (1930s, reconstruction after the great depression), 1950s (another conservative period, don’t create new things), 1960 (great society, creation of medicare, medicade, environmental policy). We see a cycle happening.
  9. Policy Regime Theory
    Operates to maintain policy stability. Includes power arrangements where the level of involvement and influence of the organizations and individuals involved on the policy is determined. Then there are organizational arrangements that dictate the involvement of governmental agencies, private and non profit organizations on a policy.  Lastly there is policy paradigm, which takes into account policy image and public views influence on the advancement of the policy.
  10. Stressors
    can be demographic shifts, mode of production change, economic dislocation, catastrophic events, new technologies, and international events. Ie. Newtown incident on gun control.
  11. President’s budget
    A document submitted annually (due by the first Monday in February) by the President to Congress. It sets forth the Administration's recommendations for the Federal budget for the upcoming fiscal year.
  12. Line-item budget
    A budget in which each expense is separately accounted for. It is a budget with grouped cost centers or departments as individual financial statement items
  13. Budget inputs
    all the resources that contribute to the production and delivery of outputs. Inputs are "what we use to do the work". They include finances, personnel, equipment and buildings.
  14. Budget outputs
    the final products, or goods and services produced for delivery. Outputs may be defined as "what we produce or deliver". The products, capital goods and services which result from an input; may also include changes resulting from the iput which are relevant to the achievement of outcomes
  15. Budget outcomes
    the medium-term results for specific beneficiaries that are the consequence of achieving specific outputs. Outcomes should relate clearly to an institution's strategic goals and objectives set out in its plans. Outcomes are "what we wish to achieve".
  16. Budget Debt
    All the money borrowed by the federal government over the years and still standing.
  17. Uncontrolled expenditure
    Expenditures that are determined not by fixed amount of money appropriated by Congress but how many eligible beneficiaries there are for a program or by previous obligations of the government. I.e. Social Security
  18. Performance Budget
    Decisions made on these types of budgets focus more on outputs or outcomes of services than on decisions made based on inputs. In other words, allocation of funds and resources are based on their potential results
  19. PAYGO
    stands for “pay-as-you-go,” is a budget rule requiring that, relative to current law, any tax cuts or entitlement and other mandatory spending increases must be paid for by a tax increase or a cut in mandatory spending. The legislation must be paid for over two time periods: 1) the period of the current year, the budget year and the ensuing four fiscal years, and 2) the period of the current year, the budget year and the ensuing nine fiscal years.
  20. Budget Enforcement Act
    The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 was enacted by Congress to replace the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, also known as the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act. The BEA was designed to combat persistent budget deficits that were being experienced by the American government from the 1980s through the l the 1990s
  21. Reconciliation
    legislative process of the United States Senate intended to allow consideration of a budget bill with debate limited to twenty hours under Senate rules. Reconciliation also exists in the United States House of Representatives, but because the House regularly passes rules that constrain debate and amendment, the process has had a less significant impact on that body
  22. Keynesianism
    Emerged with Roosevelt, solution to great depression, was to stimulate the economy ("inducement to invest") through some combination of two approaches:

    A reduction in interest rates (monetary policy), and

    • Government investment in infrastructure (fiscal
    • policy).
  23. Automatic stabilizers
    Economic policies and programs that are designed to offset fluctuations in a nation's economic activity without intervention by the government or policymakers. The best-known automatic stabilizers are corporate and personal taxes, and transfer systems such as unemployment insurance and welfare.
  24. Trust Funds
    A trust fund is an account established for deposit and disbursement of funds which are not controlled through the state budget process. The Social Security Trust Funds are the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) and the Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Funds. These funds are accounts managed by the Department of the Treasury. They serve two purposes: (1) they provide an accounting mechanism for tracking all income to and disbursements from the trust funds, and (2) they hold the accumulated assets. These accumulated assets provide automatic spending authority to pay benefits. The Social Security Act limits trust fund expenditures to benefits and administrative costs.
  25. National debt
    Debt owed by the federal government, different than national deficit in that deficit looks at the difference between government receipts and spending in a given year
  26. Simpson-Bowles
    1.Eliminate all tax expenditures—for both income and payroll taxes—except the EITC, the child credit, foreign tax credits, and a few less common preferences.

    2.Eliminate tax expenditures only for income taxes, not for payroll taxes.

    3.Eliminate tax expenditures only for income taxes—not for payroll taxes—but cap and restructure the tax benefits for mortgage interest, employer-sponsored health insurance, and retirement saving instead of eliminating them.
  27. TANF
    Temporary Assistance for Needy Families - Federal assistance program started in 1997.  Provides cash assistance to American families with dependent children.  Known simply as “welfare”.  States have a large amount of latitude in how they implement TANF programs, largely decide on who receives TANF funding.
  28. EITC
    Earned Income Tax Credit - a refundable tax credit for low to middle income individuals and families, primarily for those with qualifying children.  This credit is provided to offset the burden of social security taxes and also to promote an incentive to work. In order for a person or couple to claim one or more persons as their qualifying child(ren), the age, relationship, and shared residency requirements must be met, as well as some other requirements. U.S. tax forms 1040EZ, 1040A, or 1040 can be used to claim EIC without qualifying children. To claim the credit with qualifying children, 1040A or 1040 must be used, as well as attaching Schedule EIC.
  29. Refundable tax credit
    A refundable credit is a tax credit that can result in money being distributed to a taxpayer even if there are no other taxes left for the credit to offset.
  30. Social insurance
    An insurance program carried out or mandated by a government to provide economic assistance to the unemployed, the elderly, or the disabled. (MEDICARE&UNEMPLOYMENT)
  31. AIME
    Average Indexed Monthly Earnings, A calculation used to determine the Primary Insurance Amount (PIA) amount used to value an individual's social security benefits. The Average Indexed Monthly Earnings (AIME) takes your top 35 highest earning years up to age 60 and indexes it for wage growth, and then averages it to get a monthly amount. The AIME tries to approximate your earnings over your lifetime at today's wage levels
  32. Payroll tax (FICA)
    These federal taxes on the payrolls of employers and employees fund Social Security, Medicare, and other social insurance programs. They are the second largest source of federal revenue after income taxes. 6.2% is for Social Security and 1.45% is for Medicare. The employer matches this. The Social Security payroll tax is for all income up to $113,700. There is no income cap for Medicare.
  33. Tax expenditures
    • Revenue a government foregoes through the provisions of tax laws that allow (1) deductions, exclusions, or exemptions from the taxpayers’ taxable expenditure, income or investment, (2) deferral of tax liability or (3) preferential tax
    • rates.
  34. Horizontal equity
    This is a principle that assumes that people in the same or similar positions (with regards to tax purposes) will be subject to the same tax liability. It is used to gauge whether tax burdens are distributed fairly.
  35. Vertical equity
    Is an economic concept related to taxation which states that different individuals have different ability to pay taxes and that those differences should be reflected in the amount of taxes paid. Meaning, those with more money should be forced to pay a higher amount in taxes than those with less income.
  36. Progressive tax
    A progressive tax is a tax rate applied to either income or profits, or spending, that increases as income/profits, or spending increases. This is the tax system used in the US, and in many other countries. Those who make the least amount of money tend to pay the lowest percentage of their income in taxes. People who make larger amounts of money are taxed at a higher percentage.
  37. Regressive tax
    This is where percentage of taxes decreases when income increases. This would mean people who make the most would pay a much lower percentage in taxes, but since their income is high, they’d still pay quite a bit in taxes. This system would mean that everyone would pay about the same amount in taxes each year.
  38. Capital gains tax
    Is a type of tax levied on capital gains incurred by individuals and corporations. Capital gains are the profits that an investor gets when he or she sells the capital asset for a price that is higher than the purchase price. Capital gains taxes are only triggered when an asset is realized, not while it is held by the investor
  39. HMOs
    Provides or arranges managed care for health insurance - acts as a liason with health care providers - i.e. Kaiser, Blue Cross.
  40. Medicare Part A
    Covers most medical costs associated with hospitalization  (i.e. surgery, intensive care, hospital-related diagnostic tests, prescription drugs) but doesn’t cover physician care.
  41. Medicare Part B
    is optional... operates like physician care insurance with copayments and deductibles - Fed. Govt. pays a large share of the premium, the recipient pays the balance
  42. Medicaid
    associated with the poor with the idea that it would be primarily  for AFDC and SSI recipients- funding split between the federal government (pays more) and the state governments... most recipients are children.... low-income elderly, blind, physically and mentally disabled - covers most services associated with hospital care (i.e. surgery, recovery, also physician care)
  43. Adverse selection
    The tendency of those who experience greater health risks to apply for and continue their coverage under any given health insurance plan. When adverse selection increases, health insurance companies experience greater expenses and may raise rates.
  44. Free rider for social insurance
    Social insurance is available to everyone, but not everyone would pay into it if they didn't have to. People who don't pay into it still receive the benefits without any of the costs.
  45. Moral hazard
    When a party will have a tendency to take risk because the costs that could incur will not be felt by the party taking the risk. A moral hazard may occur where the actions of one party may change to the detriment of another after a financial transaction has taken place.
  46. Rand Health Insurance Experiment
    Experimental study of health care costs, utilization and outcomes in the United States, which assigned people randomly to 4 different kinds of plans and followed their behavior, from 1974 to 1982. The experiment included 2,750 families and all participants were under the age of 65. Groups had a varying range of co-pays 0%, 25%, 50%, and 95%. Showed that people went slightly more often with lower costs. The biggest change was from 0% to 25%, not a big change after that. Findings were similar for in/out patient visits. Found that people with free access to health care were no healthier than those who were paying
  47. Baumol's disease
    Is a phenomenon described by William Baumol and William Bowen in the 1960s. It involves a rise of salaries in jobs that have experienced no increase of labor productivity in response to rising salaries in other jobs which did experience such labor productivity growth. This seemingly goes against the theory in classical economics that wages are closely tied to labor productivity changes.
  48. Comparative Effectiveness Research
    Designed to inform healthcare decisions by providing evidence on the effectiveness, benefits, and harms of different treatment options. The evidence is generated from research studies that compare drugs, medical devices, tests, surgeries, or ways to deliver health care. The core question of comparative effectiveness research is which treatment works best, for whom, and under what circumstances. The purpose of CER is to assist consumers, clinicians, purchasers, and policy makers to make informed decisions that will improve health care at both the individual and population levels.
  49. Tax subsidy of health Insurance
    The affordable Care Act provides subsidies in the form of direct money or tax credits. Up to 2016 it gives money to individual states to cover the cost of increasing the number of low income families eligible for Medicaid, and provides subsidies to low income individuals who don't qualify for Medicare or Medicaid but who are required to purchase insurance. Also provides tax credits to small business with less than 25 employees to offset the cost of providing health care.
  50. Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    Part of President Johnson’s “War on Poverty” - funds primary and secondary education and emphasizes equal access to education and establishes high standards and accountability - aims to shorten the achievement gaps between students by providing each child with fair and equal opportunities...
  51. No Child Left Behind
    Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act - supports standards based education reform - based on idea that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals can improve individual outcomes in education - requires states to develop assessments in basic skills...
  52. Charter Schools
    community schools sponsored by state, local, private or nonprofit groups- have their own independent governing boards - they hire their own teachers and staff and develop their own curriculum - generally chartered because they offer something innovative and unique compared to public schools.
  53. Parents Attitudes about schools
    Parents tend to believe that the school their child is attending is good even if their overall opinion of the educational system as a whole is negative. Parents who are more involved with their child's school have the most positive views.
  54. Vouchers
    A certificate provided to parents that they can apply towards the cost of a private school. It gives parents the option to send their children to the school that they think will offer the best education. The maximum amount of the voucher varies from state to state. Everyone is taxed to pay for state funded public education, the voucher offers parents who pay for private school a way to offset the cost.
  55. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
    Signed by president Obama in 2010. Aimed at increasing health insurance coverage for all Americans and lowering the cost of heath care. Uses a combination of mandates, subsidies, and tax credits to control costs to consumers while increasing coverage. Also aims to improve health care outcomes and streamline the delivery of health care.
  56. Individual Mandate
    Part of the Affordable Health-care Act. Requires that all people purchase or otherwise obtain health insurance by 2014 or face a penalty in the form of a tax.
  57. Private Insurance market
    Accessed through individual buyers or can be sponsored by an employer. Conservatives believe that the private market should be left alone and that competition within the market will drive down the cost of insurance.
  58. Tax subsidy of health Insurance
    The affordable Care Act provides subsidies in the form of direct money or tax credits. Up to 2016 it gives money to individual states to cover the cost of increasing the number of low income families eligible for Medicaid, and provides subsidies to low income individuals who don't qualify for Medicare or Medicaid but who are required to purchase insurance. Also provides tax credits to small business with less than 25 employees to offset the cost of providing health care.
  59. Greenspan Commission
    The Greenspan Commission projected that the social security system would be a solvent for the entirety of its 75-year forecast period with certain recommendations.
  60. Increasing inequality
    income inequality has grown significantly since the early 1970s after several decades of stability. While inequality has risen among most developed countries, and especially English speaking ones, it is highest in the United States.
  61. Marginal Tax Rate
    The amount of tax paid on an additional dollar of income. The marginal tax rate for an individual will increase as income rises. This method of taxation aims to fairly tax individuals based on their earnings, with low income earners being taxed at a lower rate than higher income earners.  Under a marginal tax rate, tax payers are most often divided into tax brackets or ranges which determine which rate  taxable income is taxed at.
  62. Effective Tax Rate
    The average rate at which an individual or corporation is taxed. The effective tax rate for individuals is the average rate at which their earned income is taxed. The effective tax rate for a corporation is the average rate at which its pre-tax profits are taxed. An individual’s tax rate is calculated by dividing total tax expense by taxable income. The effective tax rate is the net rate a tax payer pays if all forms of taxes are included and divided by taxable income.
  63. Tax Efficiency
    An attempt to minimize tax liability when given many different financial decisions. There is a wide variety of tax-efficient vehicles including mutual funds, irrevocable trusts and tax exempt commercial paper.
  64. Benefit Principle
    Under the benefit principle, taxes are seen as serving a function similar to that of prices in private transactions, they help determine what activities the government will undertake and who will pay for them. If this principle could be implemented, the allocation of resources through the public sector would respond directly to consumer wishes.
  65. Ability to pay principle
    requires that higher earning individuals pay a higher percentage of income toward taxes. Maintains that taxes should be levied according to a taxpayers ability to pay.
  66. Tax acceptability
    Democracy requires that taxes be acceptable to the public.
  67. Deduction and credits
    deductions lower the effective tax rate, a deduction from gross income that arises due to various types of expenses incurred by a tax payer, they lower overall tax expense liability. Tax deductions are often used to entice tax payers to participate in programs which have a societal benefit or charitable donations, or expenses to make your home more environmentally friendly. Tax credit-  an amount of money that a taxpayer is able to subtract from the amount of tax that they owe to a government. Unlike deductions and exemptions, which reduce the amount of your income that is taxable, tax credits reduce the actual amount of tax owed.
  68. Budget Defecit
    occurs when federal spending exceeds revenue.
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Gov 170 Final
2013-05-21 03:45:28
Gov 170

Gov 170 Final
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