Exam 2 Study Guide (Mastering A&P)

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lonelygirl
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220274
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Exam 2 Study Guide (Mastering A&P)
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2013-05-19 21:35:13
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103A
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  1. Which of the following is CORRECTLY paired?

    A. skeletal muscle: voluntary control
    B. smooth muscle: striated
    C. cardiac muscle: voluntary control
    D. cardiac muscle: nonstriated
    A. skeletal muscle: voluntary control
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which type of muscle CANNOT contract without being stimulated by the nervous system?

    A. smooth
    B. skeletal
    C. cardiac
    D. visceral
    B. skeletal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which muscle characteristic describes the ability of muscle to respond to a stimulus?

    A. excitability
    B. contractility
    C. extensibility
    D. elasticity
    A. excitability
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The molecular interaction described as a "cross bridge" involves the binding of which two of the letters below?



    A. A and C
    B. B and D
    C. A and B
    D. A and D
    A. A and C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The protein troponin is shown in this figure to be bound to which substance?



    A. acetycholine
    B. calcium ion
    C. sodium ion
    D. myosin
    B. calcium ion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. How many motor units are illustrated in the figure?




    A. 2
    B. 9
    C. 1
    D. 5
    A. 2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. If both of the neurons in the figure were activated, more muscle fibers would contract than if either neuron alone were active. This mechanism for control of the force of muscle contraction is known as ______.



    A. wave summation
    B. excitation-contraction coupling
    C. tetanus
    D. recruitment
    D. recruitment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. In which phase of the muscle twitch shown in the above figure would the maximum amount of ATP be consumed by myosin head groups?



    A. B
    B. C
    C. A
    A. B
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. In which phase in the figure would the net movement of Ca2+ into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) be greatest?



    A. A
    B. B
    C. C
    C. C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. What result would be expected if an additional stimulus, equal in intensity to the first, were to be applied to the muscle at the 60 millisecond (ms) time point?



    A. The tension exerted by the muscle would continue to decrease, but at a significantly slower rate than observed without the second stimulus.
    B. The muscle would increase in tension to a level greater than that measured at the beginning of phase C.
    C. The muscle would quickly return to the fully relaxed state of minimum tension.
    D. Tension would increase to the same maximum force measured at the beginning of phase C.
    B. The muscle would increase in tension to a level greater than that measured at the beginning of phase C.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. The smallest contractile unit within skeletal muscle would correspond to the distance between which two points in the figure?



    A. 1 and 3
    B. 2 and 6
    C. 1 and 7
    D. 3 and 5
    C. 1 and 7
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. What event directly triggers the release of neurotransmitter shown in A?



    A. diffusion of Ca2+ into the axonal terminus
    B. diffusion of Na+ out of the axonal terminus
    C. diffusion of K+ into the axonal terminus
    D. diffusion of Na+ into the axonal terminus
    A. diffusion of Ca2+ into the axonal terminus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. What specific neurotransmitter is released from the axonal terminus as shown in A?



    A. myosin
    B. calcium
    C. acetylcholine
    D. actin
    C. acetylcholine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The smallest contractile unit of a muscle fiber is ________.

    A. the sarcomere
    B. troponin
    C. the elastic filament
    D. the myofilament
    A. the sarcomere
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. The major role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum is to regulate ________.

    A. extracellular levels of Ca2+
    B. intracellular levels of Ca2+
    C. extracellular levels of Na+
    D. intracellular levels of Na+
    B. intracellular levels of Ca2+
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Thick myofilaments are made of ________.

    A. myosin
    B. tropomyosin
    C. actin
    D. troponin
    A. myosin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The sliding filament model of contraction states that ________.

    A. during contraction the thin myofilaments slide past the thick myofilaments so that calcium ions can be released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    B. during contraction the thin myofilaments slide past the thick myofilaments so that the actin and myosin myofilaments no longer overlap
    C. during contraction the thin myofilaments slide past T tubules so that the Z discs are overlapping
    D. during contraction the thin myofilaments slide past the thick myofilaments so that the actin and myosin myofilaments overlap to a greater degree
    D. during contraction the thin myofilaments slide past the thick myofilaments so that the actin and myosin myofilaments overlap to a greater degree
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. A muscle that is lengthening while it produces tension is performing a(an) ________ contraction.

    A. isometric
    B. eccentric
    C. concentric
    D. maximal
    B. eccentric
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The response of a motor unit to a single action potential of its motor neuron is called ________.

    A. a tetanic contraction
    B. recruitment
    C. wave summation 
    D. a muscle twitch
    D. a muscle twitch
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Slow oxidative muscle fibers are best suited for ________.

    A. running a marathon
    B. hitting a baseball
    C. lifting heavy weights at the gym
    D. running a 100-yard dash
    A. running a marathon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Isometric contraction leads to movement of a load. True or False
    False
  22. Which protein inhibits interaction between actin and myosin to prevent skeletal muscle contraction; and which ions remove the inhibition?

    A. troponin; sodium ions
    B. tropomyosin; calcium ions
    C. myosin; sodium ions
    D. actin; calcium ions
    B. tropomyosin; calcium ions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Excitation-contraction coupling includes all EXCEPT which of the following events?

    A. release of calcium ions from the terminal cisterns
    B. propagation of an action potential along the sarcolemma and down T tubules
    C. release of acetylcholine from axon terminals at the neuromuscular junction
    D. binding of calcium ions to troponin, which removes the blocking action of tropomyosin
    C. release of acetylcholine from axon terminals at the neuromuscular junction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. What is a cross bridge cycle?

    A. It is the cycle by which the sarcolemma is repeatedly depolarized and repolarized.
    B. It is the cycle in which motor units are recruited from small to large, in order to produce gradual increases in force.
    C. It is a cycle of repeated stimuli resulting in summation of muscle twitches.
    D. It is the cycle in which an energized myosin head binds to actin and performs a power stroke, then binds to ATP in order to detach and re-energize.
    D. It is the cycle in which an energized myosin head binds to actin and performs a power stroke, then binds to ATP in order to detach and re-energize.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Which pathway for regenerating ATP provides the majority of the energy used for muscle activity during 30 minutes of light to moderate exercise?

    A. aerobic respiration
    B. anaerobic glycolysis
    C. direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate
    D. use of stored ATP
    A. aerobic respiration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which muscle fiber type is best suited for endurance activities, such as long-distance jogging?

    A. fast oxidative fibers
    B. slow glycolytic fibers
    C. slow oxidative fibers
    D. fast glycolytic fibers
    C. slow oxidative fibers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Cross bridge formation between myosin heads and actin molecules is caused by the elevation of calcium ion concentration in the cytosol. During rigor mortis, this elevation of calcium ion concentration in the cytosol is permanent because ________.

    A. mitochondria stop producing ATP molecules required by the sarcoplasmic reticulum's calcium ion pumps
    B. troponin molecules bind irreversibly to calcium ions to prevent them from being removed from the cytosol
    C. tropomyosin molecules bind irreversibly to calcium ions to prevent them from being removed from the cytosol
    D. acetylcholine continues to stimulate the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    A. mitochondria stop producing ATP molecules required by the sarcoplasmic reticulum's calcium ion pumps
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Immediately following the arrival of the stimulus at a skeletal muscle cell there is a short period called the ________ period during which the neurotransmitter is released by exocytosis, diffuses across the synaptic cleft, and binds to its receptors.

    A. contraction
    B. refractory
    C. relaxation
    D. latent
    D. latent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. What structure in skeletal muscle cells functions in calcium storage?

    A. myofibrillar network
    B. mitochondria
    C. termediate filament network
    D. sarcoplasmic reticulumin
    D. sarcoplasmic reticulumin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. What does excess postexercise oxygen consumption represent?

    A. amount of oxygen needed for aerobic activity to accomplish the same amount of work
    B. the amount of oxygen equal to the oxygen already used
    C. the difference between the amount of oxygen needed for totally aerobic muscle activity and the amount actually used
    D. the amount of oxygen taken into the body immediately after the exertion
    C. the difference between the amount of oxygen needed for totally aerobic muscle activity and the amount actually used
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Creatine phosphate functions in the muscle cell by ________.

    A. forming a temporary chemical compound with myosin.
    B. forming a chemical compound with actin
    C. inducing a conformational change in the myofilaments
    D. storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP
    D. storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. What is the primary function of wave summation?

    A. prevent muscle fatigue
    B. produce smooth, continuous muscle contraction
    C. prevent muscle relaxation
    D. increase muscle tension
    B. produce smooth, continuous muscle contraction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. The major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction is to ________.

    A. synthesize actin and myosin myofilaments
    B. regulate intracellular calcium concentration
    C. make and store phosphocreatine
    D. provide a source of myosin for the contraction process
    B. regulate intracellular calcium concentration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. The contractile units of skeletal muscles are ________.

    A. mitochondria
    B. microtubules
    C. myofibrils
    D. T tubules
    C. myofibrils
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. What is the functional role of the T tubules?

    A. synthesize ATP to provide energy for muscle contraction
    B. enhance cellular communication during muscle contraction
    C. stabilize the G and F actin
    D. hold cross bridges in place in a resting muscle
    B. enhance cellular communication during muscle contraction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. What is the role of calcium ions in muscle contraction?

    A. increase levels of myoglobin
    B. bind to regulatory sites on troponin to remove contraction inhibition
    C. reestablish glycogen stores
    D. form hydroxyapatite crystals
    B. bind to regulatory sites on troponin to remove contraction inhibition
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. When a muscle is unable to respond to stimuli temporarily, it is in which of the following periods?

    A. refractory period
    B. fatigue period
    C. relaxation period
    D. latent period
    A. refractory period
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. An anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of two net ATPs per glucose plus two pyruvic acid molecules is ________.

    A. hydrolysis
    B. the electron transport chain
    C. glycolysis
    D. the citric acid cycle
    C. glycolysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Muscle tone is ________.

    A. the condition of athletes after intensive training
    B. the feeling of well-being following exercise
    C. a state of sustained partial contraction
    D. the ability of a muscle to efficiently cause skeletal movements
    C. a state of sustained partial contraction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The sliding filament model of contraction involves ________.

    A. actin and myosin lengthening in order to slide past each other
    B. the Z discs sliding over the myofilaments
    C. the shortening of thick filaments so that thin filaments slide past
    D. actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlapping
    D. actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlapping
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Hypothetically, if a muscle were stretched to the point where thick and thin filaments no longer overlapped, ________.

    A. maximum force production would result because the muscle has a maximum range of travel
    B. cross bridge attachment would be optimum because of all the free binding sites on actin
    C. no muscle tension could be generated
    D. ATP consumption would increase because the sarcomere is "trying" to contract
    C. no muscle tension could be generated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. What part of the sarcolemma contains acetylcholine receptors?

    A. motor end plate
    B. end of the muscle fiber
    C. part adjacent to another muscle cell
    D. any part of the sarcolemma
    A. motor end plate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. The force of muscle contraction is controlled by multiple motor unit summation or recruitment. True or False
    True
  44. Binding of calcium to calmodulin is a step in excitation-contraction coupling of ________ cells.

    A. skeletal muscle
    B. cardiac muscle
    C. cardiac and visceral smooth muscle
    D. smooth muscle
    D. smooth muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. The type of muscle found in the walls of most hollow organs is ________.

    A. multi unit smooth muscle
    B. cardiac muscle
    C. unitary smooth muscle
    D. skeletal muscle
    C. unitary smooth muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. What special feature of smooth muscle allows it to stretch without immediately resulting in a strong contraction?

    A. stress-relaxation response
    B. smooth muscle tone
    C. slow, prolonged contractile activity
    D. low energy requirements
    A. stress-relaxation response
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Which of the following describes the cells of unitary smooth muscle?

    A. They consist of muscle fibers that are structurally independent of each other.
    B. They exhibit spontaneous action potentials.
    C. They are used for vision and hair raising.
    D. They depend upon recruitment using the autonomic nervous system.
    B. They exhibit spontaneous action potentials.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Although there are no sarcomeres, smooth muscle still possesses thick and thin filaments. True or False
    True
  49. Cardiac muscle makes most of its ATP via anaerobic pathways. True or False
    False

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