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what are the two types of consequentialism (teleology)?
- egoism and utilitarianism
- -egoism- best long term interest of the
- individual are promoted
-utilitarianism- holds that people should act to produce the greatest ratio of good to evil for everyone
Systematic study of rightness and wrongness of humane conduct and character as known by natural reason
3 types of ethical theories
- 1. teology (consequentialism)- ends justify means
- 2. deontology (nonconsequentialism)- formal rules of right and wrong for reasoning and problem solving
- 3. virtue ethics-use of practical wisdom for emotional and intelectual problem solving
Define analytical or engineering model
identifies the caregiver as a scientist dealing only on facts, doesn't consider human aspect of the patient
Define priestly model
- provides caregiver with a god like paternalist attitude that only makes decisions for the patient instead of with them.
- Pt. feels a loss of control
Making a pt. comply to treatment procedures, regardless of pt. pain or discomfort
Define the collegial model
- involves sharing, trust, and consideration of common goals.
- Gives more control to the patient while producing confidence and preserving dignity and respect.
- Crucial to provide humane treatment for cancer patients
Define Contractual Model
- Maintains a Business relationship between provider and patient
- Best represented by the informed consent
Allows pt. to recieve all information and make decisions in an informed matter
Define covenant model
- patient trust caregiver to do what is right
- - usually based on previous experiences with health care
core beliefs concerning what is desirable and help assure the worth of intangibles
- provide the foundation for decisions in individuals in their personal and professional lives
the claim that each patient is free to make life-directing decisions is known as ....
the bioethical principle of autonomy
- To give informed consent the pt. must be informed of
- 1. the nature of the procedure, tx. or disease
- 2. the expectations of the treatment and the likelihood of success
- 3. Reasonable alternatives
- available and probable outcome in the absence of treatment
- 4. particular known risks that are mentioned to the informed decision about whether to accept or reject medical recommendations
- remmebr = NEAR
- Nature- procedure
- Expectations- of success
- Alternatives- options and probable outcome
Informed consent must be secured by a ________
What does HIPAA stand for?
Health Insurance portabiliuty and accountabilty act
6 stages of grief cycle
- 1. shock
- 2. denial
- 3. anger
- 4. bargaining
- 5. depression and testing(look for a solution)
- 6. acceptance
allows a competent adult to provide direction to health care providers concerning their choice of treatment under certain conditions
- Do not resuscitate,
- nullifies cardiopulmonary resusicitation in the event of a cardiac arrest
durable power of attorney
allows an individual to designate anyone willing, 18 years of age or older, to make decisions in matters of their health care
Both living will and the durable power of attorney for health care are considered ___________.
Help avoid treatment and other conflicts among family.
Before treating a patient you should always check their health care record for __________ and ____________.
DNR orders and advanced directives
type of law that governs noncriminal activities
- Type of civil law
- Tort means "wrong"
- a wrongful act committed against a person or their property
a personal injury law, act may be malicious and intentional or the result of negligence and disreguard to the rights of others
2 types - intentional and unintentional
Intentional torts include:
- false imprisonment
- invasion of privacy
- intentional infliction of emotional distress
threat of touching, if a patient feels like they might be harmed it can be considered assault
"Always ask to touch a patient"
actual harmful, unconsented or unwarranted contact with an individual
Never touch pt. or tx if the pt. refuses
Define False imprisonment
- intentional without confinement without authorization
- if a therapist uses constraints without asking permision from pt. or guardian
- -Not allowiing patient to leave a room
Define Libel and Slander
- written defamation of character
- oral defamation of character
Invasion of privacy
- - if confidentiality is breeched
- - or if patients body has been improperly and unecessarily exposed or touched
ex. no one should ever be by the viewing monitors except for authorized becessary staff members
- - neglect or omision of reasonable care or caution
- - unintentional uinjury to patient
- - still considered malpractice even if caregiver was being careful
Doctrine of personal liability
means the law doesn't permit wrongdoers to avoid legal liability for their own actions
Therapist will be held responsible for their own negligent actions
Doctrine of Respondeat Superior
- "let the master answer"
- employer is responsible for negligent acts of emplyees that occur while they are carrying out orders of serving the interest of the employer
Doctrine of Res Ipsa Loquitur
- " the thing speaks for itself"
- defendant needs to explain the events and convince the court that no negligence was involved
Bring experts in to prove whether or not the situation could have been avoided, if they were trained properly
Doctrine of Forseeability
a law that holds the individual accountable in the event that the negligent act could have been forseen
process of avoiding or controlling the risk of financial lossto staff members and the hospital or medica center
- Job of risk management
- 1. identify actual or potential causes of accidents
- 2. implement plans to elinate or reduce these occurences
any happeining that is not consistent with the routine operation of the hospital or the routine care of a particular patient
Could be an accident or a situation that could result in an accident
These reports should not be placed on the pt.s health care record
True or False it is okay to record information for others in a patients chart.
T or F critical comments should be included in the patients chart about the patient, his or her family or health care professionals.
T or F it is important to sign each chart entry with your name and title.