RTT 71

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RTT 71
2013-05-19 19:03:04

Final Study Guide
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  1. what are the two types of consequentialism (teleology)?
    • egoism and utilitarianism
    • -egoism- best long term interest of the
    •  individual are promoted

    -utilitarianism- holds that people should act to produce the greatest ratio of good to evil for everyone
  2. Define ethics
    Systematic study of rightness and wrongness of humane conduct and character as known by natural reason
  3. 3 types of ethical theories
    • 1. teology (consequentialism)- ends justify means
    • 2. deontology (nonconsequentialism)- formal rules of right and wrong for reasoning and problem solving
    • 3. virtue ethics-use of practical wisdom for emotional and intelectual problem solving
  4. Define analytical or engineering model
    identifies the caregiver as a scientist dealing only on facts, doesn't consider human aspect of the patient
  5. Define priestly model
    • provides caregiver with a god like paternalist attitude that only makes decisions for the patient instead of with them.
    • Pt. feels a loss of control

    Making a pt. comply to treatment procedures, regardless of pt. pain or discomfort
  6. Define the collegial model
    • involves sharing, trust, and consideration of common goals.
    • Gives more control to the patient while producing confidence and preserving dignity and respect.
    • Crucial to provide humane treatment for cancer patients
  7. Define Contractual Model
    • Maintains a Business relationship between provider and patient
    • Best represented by the informed consent

    Allows pt. to recieve all information and make decisions in an informed matter
  8. Define covenant model
    • patient trust caregiver to do what is right
    • - usually based on previous experiences with health care
  9. Define values
    core beliefs concerning what is desirable and help assure the worth of intangibles

    - provide the foundation for decisions in individuals in their personal and professional lives
  10. the claim that each patient is free to make life-directing decisions is known as ....
    the bioethical principle of autonomy 
  11. Informed Consent
    • To give informed consent the pt. must be informed of
    • 1. the nature of the procedure, tx. or disease
    • 2. the expectations of the treatment and the likelihood of success
    • 3. Reasonable alternatives
    •  available and probable outcome in the absence of treatment
    • 4. particular known risks that are mentioned to the informed decision about whether to accept or reject medical recommendations
    • remmebr =  NEAR
    • Nature- procedure
    • Expectations- of success
    • Alternatives- options and probable outcome
    • Risks-
  12. Informed consent must be secured by a ________
  13. What does HIPAA stand for?
    Health Insurance portabiliuty and accountabilty act
  14. 6 stages of grief cycle
    • 1. shock
    • 2. denial
    • 3. anger
    • 4. bargaining
    • 5. depression and testing(look for a solution)
    • 6. acceptance
  15. Living Will
    allows a competent adult to provide direction to health care providers concerning their choice of treatment under certain conditions
  16. DNR
    • Do not resuscitate,
    • nullifies cardiopulmonary resusicitation in the event of a cardiac arrest
  17. durable power of attorney
    allows an individual to designate anyone willing, 18 years of age or older, to make decisions in matters of their health care
  18. Both living will and the durable power of attorney for health care are considered ___________.
    advanced directives

    Help avoid treatment and other conflicts among family.
  19. Before treating a patient you should always check their health care record for __________ and ____________.
    DNR orders and advanced directives
  20. Civil Law
    type of law that governs noncriminal activities
  21. Tort Law
    • Type of civil law
    • Tort means "wrong"
    • a wrongful act committed against a person or their property

    a personal injury law, act may be malicious and intentional or the result of negligence and disreguard to the rights of others

    2 types - intentional and unintentional
  22. Intentional torts include:
    • assault
    • battery
    • false imprisonment
    • libel,
    • slander
    • invasion of privacy
    • intentional infliction of emotional distress
  23. Define Assault
    threat of touching, if a patient feels like they might be harmed it can be considered assault

    "Always ask to touch a patient"
  24. Battery
    actual harmful, unconsented or unwarranted contact with an individual

    Never touch pt. or tx if the pt. refuses
  25. Define False imprisonment
    • intentional without confinement without authorization
    • ex.
    • if a therapist uses constraints without asking permision from pt. or guardian
    • -Not allowiing patient to leave a room
  26. Define Libel and Slander
    • written defamation of character
    • oral defamation of character
  27. Invasion of privacy
    • - if confidentiality is breeched
    • - or if patients body has been improperly and unecessarily exposed or touched

    ex. no one should ever be by the viewing monitors except for authorized becessary staff members
  28. Define Negligence
    • - neglect or omision of reasonable care or caution
    • - unintentional uinjury to patient
    • - still considered malpractice even if caregiver was being careful
  29. Doctrine of personal liability
    means the law doesn't permit wrongdoers to avoid legal liability for their own actions

    Therapist will be held responsible for their own negligent actions
  30. Doctrine of Respondeat Superior
    • "let the master answer"
    • employer is responsible for negligent acts of emplyees that occur while they are carrying out orders of serving the interest of the employer
  31. Doctrine of Res Ipsa Loquitur
    • " the thing speaks for itself"
    • defendant needs to explain the events and convince the court that no negligence was involved

    Bring experts in to prove whether or not the situation could have been avoided, if they were trained properly
  32. Doctrine of Forseeability
    a law that holds the individual accountable in the event that the negligent act could have been forseen
  33. Risk Management
    process of avoiding or controlling the risk of financial lossto staff members and the hospital or medica center

    • Job of risk management
    • 1. identify actual or potential causes of accidents
    • 2. implement plans to elinate or reduce these occurences
  34. Define incident
    any happeining that is not consistent with the routine operation of the hospital or the routine care of a particular patient

    Could be an accident or a situation that could result in an accident

    These reports should not be placed on the pt.s health care record
  35. True or False it is okay to record information for others in a patients chart.
  36. T or F critical comments should be included in the patients chart about the patient, his or her family or health care professionals.
  37. T or F it is important to sign each chart entry with your name and title.