RTT 71

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RTT 71
2013-05-19 20:08:59
Chapter some

Les Final
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  1. 3 types of DNA mutations
    point mutations, translocation and gene mutation
  2. adenocarcinoma
    malignant tumor of the glandular epithelium
  3. adenoma
    benign tumor of the glandular epithelium
  4. anaplastic
    • do not resemble normal cells, classification is more difficult
    • - tumors that are undifferentiated
  5. Autonomy
    right a patient has to make decisions for themselves
  6. Beneficence
    doing good, act in the best interest of the patient even when inconvienent or sacrifices must be made
  7. benign
    generally well differentiated tumors that do not metastasize or invade surrounding normal tissue
  8. Biopsy
    collecting cells to determine pathology
  9. Brachytherapy
    radioactive source placed next to or directly on a tumor
  10. Carcinomas
    tumors that originate from the epithelium
  11. cellular differentiation
    degree to which a cell resembls its cell of origin, in morphology and function
  12. chemotherapeutic agents
    classified by their actions on the cell and include alkylating agents, anitmetabolites, antibiotics, hormonal agents, nitrosoureas, alkaloids and miscelaneous
  13. chondroma
    benign tumor of the cartilage
  14. confedentiality
    pt. information is private and should be held in confidence
  15. Define what a sensitive screening exam means.
    • can identify a tumor in its early stages
    •     ex. Pap smear detects cancer before it becomes invasice
  16. Define what it means if a cnacer screening test is specific.
    Can identify a particular type of cancer
  17. Epidemiology
    • Study of disease incidences
    •    ex. epidemiology factors include age, race, gender, and geographic location
  18. ethics
    discipline dealing with right and wrong, with concern to moral duty and obligations, governs an individual or professional group 
  19. etiology
    • the study of the cause of disease
    •     x. of etiology factors- cigarette smoke, HPV, alcohol and sun exposure
  20. False Negative
    when a test indicates no disease when there really is disease present
  21. False Positive
    Indicates that there is a disease present when there really is none
  22. For a screening exam to be highly useful it must
    • sensitive
    • specific
    • cost effective
    • accurate

  23. G0 phase
    • - cells are fully functioning
    • - most cells that make up a tissue or organ are in this phase
    • - not preparing for DNA synthesis
  24. G1 phase
    • - first growth phase
    • - rapid growth and active metabolism
    • - cell synthesizes RNA and proteins to carry out cell functions
  25. G2 phase
    • Second growth phase
    • - period in which cell prepares for division
    • - enzymes and proteins are synthesized
    • - cell continues to grow
  26. Justice
    ethical principle that relates fairness and equal treatment for all
  27. Legal Ethics
    study of the law mandating certain acts and forbidding others under penaly
  28. Leiomyoma
    benign tumor of the smooth muscle (connective tissue)
  29. Leiomyosarcoma
    malignant tumor of the smooth muscle
  30. leukemia
    malignant tumor of the hematopoetic system
  31. Lymphoma
    Malignant tumor of the lymphoreticular tissue
  32. M phase
    Mitosis, cell divides
  33. Malignant tumor of the neural tissue
  34. malignant tumors
    often invade and destroy normal surounding tissue, and if left untreated canc cause death to the host
  35. mesenchymal
    connective tissue- includes bones and cartilage
  36. Moral Ethics
    The study of right and wrong, as it relates to the conscience
  37. Top 3 most common invasive cancers in women of the US
    • breast
    • lung
    • colorectal
  38. Top 3 most common invasive tumors for men in the US
    • prostate
    • lung
    • colorectal
  39. necrosis
    • dead tissue
    • happens as the tumor grows larger, blood and nutrient supply is inadequate
  40. neuroma
    benign tumor of the neural tissue
  41. Non maleficence
    avoid harmful actions to patients
  42. Oncogene
    gene that regulates the development and growth of cancerous cells
  43. papilloma
    benign tumor of the squamous epithelium
  44. Role Fidelity
    principle that reminds health care professionals that they must be faithful to their role in the health care environment
  45. S phase
    • - Synthesis
    • - DNA is replicated
    • - ensure daughter cells have identical genetic materials
  46. Sarcomas
    Tumors arising from the mesenchymal tissue
  47. somatic cells
    non reproductive
  48. squamous cell carcinoma
    malignant tumor of the squamous epithelium
  49. Veracity
    truthfulness within the realm of the health care practice
  50. What is included in The Patient Care Partnership (aka Bill of Rights) (6)
    • 1. high quality pt. care
    • 2. a clean and safe environment
    • 3. involvement in your care
    • 4. help when you leave the hospital
    • 5. protection of privacy
    • 6. help with billing claim
  51. When are cells most sensitive to Radiation?
    During G2 and M phase