Microbiology Exam 3

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Kwon256
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220309
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Microbiology Exam 3
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2013-05-28 01:03:27
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Microbiology
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Exam 3 Diana Mauldin
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  1. Protozoa
    • 1.are single celled eukarya
    • 2.without a cell wall
    • 3.often demonstrates a polymorphism
    • 4.usually aerobic chemoheterotrophs
  2. Sarcodina
    • 1. Type of Protozoa
    • 2. move via pseudopodia
  3. Mastigophora
    • 1. type of protozoa
    • 2. flagellates, move via long undulipodia
  4. 3: Ciliata
    • 1. type of protozoa
    • 2. Ciliates, move via cilia short undulipodia
  5. (4th most common protozoan infection) is a food/waterborne
    diseases caused by ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYITICA,one of 1000 protists w/o mitochondria but two nuclei, ingested cysts hatch into trophozoites in the intestine,
    trophozoites produces pore toxin that lyse epithelial cells of the intestinal
    lining causing ulceration and bloody diarrhea(Dysentery) Treatment:
    METRONIDAZOLE: BLOCKS DNA repair enzymes, work in anaerobic condition
    Amebic dysentery (Sacrodina)
  6. is caused by Giradia Lamblia. Mitosomes indstead of mictochondria, adhesive
    disc(trophozoite), 2nd to E.Coli as the most common source of
    chronic dirrahea picked up by traveling, found in97% of the surface water,
    beavers and muskrats are the primary reservoirs, problem in daycare center and
    among gay men. Cysts are food and waterborne and microbes attaches to the
    lining of the small intestine with its adhesive disc, incubation is
    12-20days,heavy infestation can cause inflammation that inhibits the absorption
    of nutrient, Symptoms include: fever, cramps, diarrhea, nausea and weight loss:
    Treatment:METRONIDAZOLE
    Giardiasis (Mastigophora)
  7. zoonosis(transmitted from animal to humans) caused by
    Trypanosoma brucie, is a re-emerging disease due to the abandonment of control
    measure, is transmitted via the tsetse fly, initially invades the circulator
    system and untimely invades the CNS. The microbes evade the immune system by
    repeatedly altering the proteins on its surface, forcing immune system to work
    hard and produce new antibodies. Symptoms : progressive disorientation, slurred
    speech, loss of muscle control, coma

    Antelelopes(reservoir)-> Tsetes fly(Vector) -> human(reservoir)-> spread
    African Sleeping Disease(Mastigophora)

  8. since 1982 the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, it has become a leading cause of diarrhea diease by protozoa in the world. Transmitted via fecal/oral routed from puppies, livestock, deer…etc is comused as an oocyst which releases sporozoites in the intestines. Sporozoites infect the epithelial cells of the intestinal lining and generate merozotoie. Severe water diarrhea. Opportunistic in immunocompromised victims(Young/AIDS), A large outbreak in Milwaukee in 1993 infected 370,000 people
    Crypotosporidium (Sporozoan)
  9. 1.most common and widespred,reproduces within the widest range of temperature
    2. continues relapses: dormant liver stage
    3.duffy negative mutation protects 95% of Africans-blocks receptors on RBC, parasites can’t enter
    4.1955 Global eradication program began: 1)DDT. Reduce mosquito habitats, drugs(cholorquine)2)By end of 20th century, banished from ½ of its 19th century domain
    Malaria (Sporozoan) Plamodium Vivax:
  10. 1. not widespread, require more warmth
    2.no relapses- DIE OR RECOVER
    3.sickle cell trait mutation 1)Heterozygous people protected from falciparum 2)Homozygous people die of Sickle cell anemia 3)Highest prevalence in West Africa (25% of pop)
    4.Eradication program never ON Africa 1)80/90% of infections in Africa 2) 90% of deaths in Africa(falciparum) 3)population growth has increased exposure by 300%
    5.Plasmodium Falciparum makes up largest number of infection
    6.HIV infection increases malarial deaths and Malaria increase HIV load
    Malaria(Sporozoan) Plasmodium Flaciparm
  11. House the core of the virus, provides protection
    and a way to transmit the viral core to ta host cell, is composed of on or more
    proteins, often arranged in capsomere
    Viral Capsid
  12. generate isometric, cubic, polyhedral or
    icosahedra (20 sided figure) capsid
    Closed shell
  13. generate cylindrical capsid
    Helical
  14. have a combination of helical and closed shell
    arrangements, head/tails
    Complex Capsid
  15. Nucleic acid genome of the virus that
    will have DNA or RNA BUT not both, usually (DNA)double strand in large viruses
    that attack animal cells and (RNA)single stranded in a small virus. RNA in
    plant virus.
    Core
  16. Bilayered memebrane composed of phospholipid, protein,and carbohydrate

    May project glycoprotein spikes(viruse
    are identify by specific spikes).
    Envelope
  17. H or Hemgglutin spikes
    associated with flu viruses, attachment of virus to host cells, binds to sialic acid in host cell membranes
  18. N or neuraminidase spikes
    • disrupts sialic acid of the host cell membrane and facilitates the flu virus escape from the host cell
  19. Gp 120 spikes
    only on HIV
  20. <![endif]--> caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. Is normally found in the intestinal tract, but causes
  21. opportunistic infections of the skin, mouth and vagina. IF systemic: causes
  22. more deaths than any other fugal pathogen. Risk factors: Oral antibiotic->
  23. yeast super infection, High blood sugar. Virulence factor: Adhesin, can covert
  24. to hyphal form in the body (dimorphic), secrete proteases and phospholipase.
  25. Cause 80% of fungal infections acquired in hospitals. Treatment: Amphotericin B
  • MYCOSES
    Human fungal dieases (both mold/yeast infection)
  • Yeast
    unicellular and resemble a stripped down of human cell
  • DERMATOPHYTE (RINGWORM)-MOLD Infection
    • Affects skin /nail/hair and produces an exoenzyme that can digest keratin (keratinase).
    • Generate toxic waste products, is transmitted via fomites(tonail clipper) and direct
    • contact via: humans and animals, for example: athletes foot, jock itch, and
    • barbers’ itch. Treatment: Amphotericin B
  • Mold
    multicellular with hypha and spore producing fruiting bodies
  • unicellular/muticeullar eukarya w/o undulipodia or tissues and with cells wall of chitin,are chemoheterotrpohs that require nutrient through exoenzyme,have complex lifecycle that include both sexual/asexual stage
    • Fungi
    • (Mold vs. Yeast)
  • can be unicellular/multicellular, have undulipoida and chloroplast and a cell wall
    made of cellulose, plants evolved from green algae
    Algae
  • Fansidar cocktail with choloroquine, hospitalization for five days of quinine,
    Artemsisin Combination Therapy, Nothing
    Treatment of Plasmodium Falciparum
  • Symptoms and signs of Plasmodium Falciparum
    • anemia,jaundice, RBC agglutination causing blockages and anoxia in the tissues, liver
    • and spllen enlargement and brain damage
  • is a neuraminidase inhibitor that is used to treat people with the flu, are used to stop the relases of flu viruses by blocking their neuraminidase spike.
    Tamiflu(oseltamivir phosphate) 
  • Blocks binding of hemagglutinin spikes and is effective against influenza A
    Amantadine
  • blocks attachments of HIV to a CCR5 receptor
    Maraviroc
  • is a nucleoside mimics that used to treat RNA viral infection (Hepatitis C) and mimics nucleoside that contain either an adenine or guanine
    Ribavirin
  • inhibits revers transcriptase in retrovirus;HIV, it is a nucleoside mimic of the
    nucleoside that contains thymine, terminates DNA elongation in a fashion similar
    to Acyclovir, can penetrate the blood brain barrier and also has affinity for
    DNA polymerase; adversely affects host cell replication
    AZT(azidothymidine)
  • integrase inhibitor to block the lysogenize of the host cell DNA
    Raltegravir
  • Genital herpes, chickenpox, mononucleosis is ALL type of Herpes
    Herpes
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