Scientific and Reformation

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  1. Explain the Great Schism.
    How did it begin and who it was fought between?
    • The French King wanted the pope in papacy so he was moved to Rome. The Papacy was moved back to Rome in 1376. Then the Great Schism began in 1378 - 1411.
    • The French Cardinals elected a new
    • pope, which was Clement VII.
    • Both the Urban VI and Clement VII had
    • claimed to be the rightful pope.
    • Then the Chrisitans began to question
    • the Papacy.
  2. What was the Babylonian Captivity?
    • It was when Philip IV of France had fought with the pope over his power to the tax clergy. Then Pope Boniface was kidnapped in 1296 and then was replaced with the French Pope (Clement V.) So that was called the “Babylonian Captivity. And
    • the seven popes had ruled church from Avignon. The Popes were puppets of the French King because the French King chose who the pope was going to be.
  3. Know the following people and clearly explain
    what they did to try and reform the church: John Wycliff, Jan Huss, Catherine of Sienna, and Girolamo
    John Wycliffe

    • - Thought that Chritians did not need the church or the
    • sacraments to achieve salvation.

    • - The Bible is the most important source of religious authority
    • and had translated it into English.

    • - The OUTCOME was that the church persecued his followers as
    • heretics.

    Jan Huss

    - Had critized wealth of the church.

    • - Had wanted religious services and had conducted in the
    • worshippers language.

    - Had opposed the sale of indulgences.

    • - The OUTCOME was that theu burned at the stake for refusing to
    • accept church rituals. (ExtraL They were charged with heresy.)


    Catherine of Siena

    - She had popularized Mysticism.

    • - Had believed that people could experience God through intense
    • prayer.

    • - The OUTCOME was that she maintained that Chrisitans did not
    • need priests, rituals, or the sacraments.


    Girolamo Savonarola

    • -  Had launched the
    • crusade against immoral society.

    - Had encouraged the book burnings.

    • - Had claimed the Vatican was filled with the sins and
    • corruption.

    • - The OUTCOME: Was burned at the stake by angry citizens of
    • Florence.
  4. Explain Martin Luther’s success in reforming
    the church. What were his beliefs? What changes were made?
    • His beliefs
    • were that forgiveness for sins could only come from God’s mercy. 

    • The 3 things he believed in was
    • 1) Justification of Faith
    • 2) The bible was the only authority for Christians.
    • 3) The belief in a priesthood of all the Christians, denying the special powers that the priests had in the Catholic church. 
    • 4) Worshipping saints were considered sinful!
  5. Name seven true statements about Martin Luther.
    • 1) Became a catholic monk. 
    • 2) Had German Parents. 
    • 3) Clergy was ALLOWED married
    • 4.) Wrote
    • 95 theses to start debates on the church abuses.
    • 5.) Ideas for the reformation had led to a new church.
    • 6.) Worship of saints and holy days was considered sinful. 
    • 7.) He was angered by the sales of indulgences.
    • Also nailing the debate to the door was to start a debate = that's the point of it!
  6. Define the following words: Indulgence, protestant, reformation,
    pamphlet, predestination, counter reformation, inquisition, and Jesuit.
    • Indulgence – certificates, issued by
    • the pope, which were said to reduce or cancel the punishment for a person’s
    • sins.

    • Protestant – A reformer who protested
    • against the absues of the Catholic chruch in the 1500’s; a member of a church
    • descended from those that seceded from the Roman Catholic church during 1500’s.

    • Reformation – The reform movement of
    • the 1500’s that resulted in the seperation of the Protestant churches from the
    • Roman Catholic Church.

    • Phamphlet – An unbound published work
    • such as an essay, usually on a current topic. It is a also another word for a "booklet."

    • Predestination – The belief that  God has determined all things in advance induding the
    • salvation.

    • Counter Reformation – The reform movement with in the Roman
    • Catholic Churhc whose goals were to abolish abuses and reaffirm traditional
    • beliefs.

    • Inquistion – A Roman Catholic Church courct received during the
    • counter Reformation for the purpose of trying and convicting and punishing
    • heretics.

    Jesuit – members of society that were called “Jesuit’s,” took vows of the poverty and of obedience to the pope. It was also the society of Jesus. Got 3 Degrees of bachelor of arts, masters of philosophy, and doctors of theology.
  7. Explain the reasons for the success of the
    Protestant Reformation.
    • 1.) Individualism and nationalism.
    • 2.) Printing Press came out that had spread new ideas.
    • 3.) People wanted a more simple straight forward relationship with God.
  8. Name the goals of the Counter Reformation.
    2 main goals of council of trent:

    1.) To ride the church of abuses

    • 2.) The church officials established
    • “The index of Prohibited Books.” And revived the inquistion.

    3.) It was also to UPHOLD THE CATHOLIC BELIEFS!!!
  9. Explain four ways the church was corrupt.
    • 1. Popes used excommunication to force monarchs to obey the
    • church.

    2. Many priests were illerate.

    3. Many clergy broke their vows of chastity.

    4. Some officials lead lives of luxury and leisure.
  10. Know the following Scientists and how they contributed
    to the Scientific Revolution: Bacon,
    Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, and Vesalius.
    Answers on study guide, notebook, paper sheet
  11. Know the following new churches that were
    created. Explain how they were founded? What were some of their beliefs?
    How are they similar and different from each other? Calvinism, Anabaptist, Church of England, Lutheranism.

    - Predestination

    • - Simple/bare church nothing to
    • interfere with the senses

    - followed a strict moral code


    • - Believed all other groups of
    • Christians were sinners, so they had created a seprate moral code

    - To live a life of God

    - STRICT moral code

    Church of England/Anglican:

    • - Created because King Henry IIII
    • wanted a divorce.

    - Monarch = Head of the Church 

    - "Act of Supremacy"

    - Monarch is the head of the church


    - Justification by FAITH

    - Created by Martin Luther

    - Bible is the only authority

    • - Believed you could have a more
    • intimate relationship with God through Song & Prayer.


    - All are Christians

    - All read the Bible

    - All belive that Jesus is the son of God

    - All believed in Salvation and Damnation

    - Sacraments: Baptism & Communion
  12. What made the Scientific
    Revolution revolutionary?
    my answer:

    • Before the
    • Scientific Revolution ahd started all the people had accepted all of the theories
    • about the world and had been passed down from the classical philosophers. These
    • theories have not changed for 100’s of years. No one had questioned them, well not
    • publicly. 

    answer from class: 

    • - King Henry wanted a divorce
    • - spread throughout all the world
    • - questioned the church, which had MEANT the church isn't the head of authority.
  13. How did it reflect extreme
    change in the way people thought about the world?
    my answer:

    • In the year
    • of the 1500s, a few people had started to challenge these accepted beliefs by
    • publishing the results of their work. The basis of their work was the
    • scientific method. 

    • Class answer:
    • - Church was no longer the only authority.
    • - Ideas had spread through all the world
    • - intense relationship with GOD comes through SONG and PRAYER!
Card Set:
Scientific and Reformation
2013-05-20 02:06:51

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