The respiratory system part 1

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Wesleypjones
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220387
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The respiratory system part 1
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2013-05-20 12:33:34
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The respiratory system part 1
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  1. the respiratory system
    the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs.
  2. The upper respiratory system
    includes the nose pharynx and associated structures
  3. the lower respiratory system
    includes the larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs
  4. the conducting zones
    consists of a series of interconnecting cavities and tubes both outside and within the lungs.  These include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles.  Their function is to filter warm and moisten air and conduct it into the lungs
  5. respiratory zone
    consists of tissues within the lungs where gas exchange occurs.  These include the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli.  They are the main sites of gas exchange between air and blood.
  6. external nose
    is the portion of the nose visible on the face and consists of supporting frame work of bone and hyaline cartilage
  7. functions of external nose
    • -warming moistening and filtering incoming air
    • -detecting olfactory stimuli
    • -modifying speech vibrations
  8. internal nose or choahae
    is a large cavity beyond the nasal vestibule in the anterior aspect of the skull
  9. internal nares
    posteriorly the internal nose communicates with the pharynx through these two openings
  10. nasal cavity
    the space within the internal nose
  11. nasal vestibule
    the anterior portion of the nasal cavity.  It is surrounded by cartilage
  12. nasal septum
    a vertical portion that divides the nasal cavity into right and left sides
  13. the superior, inferior and middle meatuses
    three shelves formed by projections of the superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae extend out of the wall of each nasal cavity. the conchae almost reaching the nasal septum subdivide each side of the nasal cavity into a series of groove like passageways called these
  14. olfactory epithelium
    the olfactory receptors lie in this region of the membrane lining the superior nasal conchae and adjacent septum
  15. pharynx
    is a funnel shaped tube that starts at the internal nares. It functions as a passageway for air and food, provides a resonating chamber for speech sounds, and houses the tonsils
  16. nasopharynx
    the superior portion of the pharynx, it lies posterior to the nasal cavity.  The posterior wall contains the pharyngeal tonsil or adenoid. It exchanges small amounts of air with the auditory tubules to equalize air pressure between the pharynx and middle air
  17. oropharynx
    the portion of the pharynx posterior to the oral cavity. Has respiratory and digestive functions, serving as a common passageway for air food and drink.  Because it is subject to abrasions, it is lined with nor keratinized stratified squamous epithelial
  18. fauces
    the opening in the oropharynx.  The opening from the mouth
  19. palatine and lingual tonsils
    Tonsils found in the oropharynx
  20. laryngopharynx or hypopharynx
    the inferior portion of the pharynx.  It begins at the level of the hyoid bone. Inferiorly opens into the esophagus posteriorly, and the larynx anteriorly.  The respiratory and digestive passageway
  21. larynx
    is a short passageway that connects the laryngopahrynx with the trachea.  It is composed of nine pieces of cartilage with varying functions.
  22. thyroid cartilage or adams apple
    consists of two fused plates of hyaline cartilage that form the anterior wall of the larynx and give it a triangular shape
  23. epiglottis
    is a large leaf shaped piece of elastic cartilage that. elevation of the larynx during swallowing causes this to move down and form a lid over the glottis closing it off
  24. glottis
    consists of a pair of folds of mucous membrane, the vocal folds and the space between them. the closing of this portion routes food and drink to the esophagus and keeps them out of the airway
  25. cricoid cartilage
    is a ring of hyaline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of the larynx.  This is the land mark for making an emergency airway called a tracheotomy
  26. arytenoid cartilages
    these paired cartilages are triangular pieces of mostly hyaline cartilage.  They form synovial joints with the cricoid cartilage and have a wide range of mobility

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