two pairs of folds in the larynx this is the superior pair. When they are brought together they function in holding the breath against pressure in the thoracic cavity, such as might occur when you strain to life a heavy object.
the other pair of folds found in the mucous membrane of the larynx. they vibrate and open and close to produce phonation. They also control pitch and volume.
trachea or wind pipe
is a tubular passageway for air extends from the larynx. 16-20 incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage are stacked one above the other. They offer a semi rigid support so that its wall does not collapse inward and obstruct the air passageway
the trachea divides into two of these
right primary bronchus
goes into the right lung. It is more vertical, shorter and wider than the other. An aspirated object is more likely to enter here
left primary bronchus
goes into the left lung.
secondary or lobar bronchi
on entering the lungs the primary bronchi divide to form smaller bronchi. One for each lobe of the lung. the right lung has three and the left has two
tertiary bronchi or segemental
the secondary bronchi continue to branch, forming still smaller bronchi called these
tertiary bronchi divide into these which in turn branch repeatedly
the extensive branching from the trachea is referred to as this.
are paired cone shaped organs in the thoracic cavity. They are separated from each other by the heart
encloses and protects the lungs by a double layered serous membrane
the superficial layer of the pleural membrane. It lines the wall of the thoracic cavity
deep layer of the pleural membrane. It covers the lungs them selves
found between the parietal and visceral pleura. it contains a small amount of lubricating fluid. It reduces friction between the membranes
the broad inferior portion of the lungs. It is concave and fits over the convex area of the diaphragm
the narrow superior portion of the lung
the surface of the lungs lying against the ribs. It matches the rounded curvature of the ribs
this region contains the hilium, through which bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit.
the hilius and its contents are held together by the pleura and connective tissue and constitute this
the left lung contains a concavity called this, in which the heart lies. Due to this fact the left lung is smaller than the right
divide each lung into lobes
extends inferiorly and anteriorly
found only in the left lung
superior and inferior lobe
are separated by the oblique fissure in the left lung
superior and inferior lobe
in the right lung the superior part of the oblique fissure separates these
inferior and middle lobe
inferior part of the oblique fissure in the right lung separates this from this which is bordered superiorly by the horizontal fissure