CD - 112 final review

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CD - 112 final review
2013-05-20 13:38:42
health safety

review notes for final in CD 112
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  1. Nutrition
    is the study of food and how it is used in the body.
  2. Nutrients
    are chemical substances that serve specific purposes. Nutrients meet the body’s need for – sources of energy, materials for growth and maintenance of body tissue, and regulation of body processes.
  3. Nutrients that provide energy
    – carbohydrates, fats, proteins
  4. Nutrients that provide growth of body tissue
    proteins , minerals, water
  5. Nutrients that regulate body functions
    proteins, minerals, water, vitamins
  6. Carbohydrates
    are an important source of energy and fiber, servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain products
  7. Fats
    - The body uses fat as a fuel source, and fat is the major storage form of energy in the body. Fat also has many other important functions in the body, and a moderate amount is needed in the diet for good health. Fats in food come in several forms, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. Too much fat or too much of the wrong type of fat can be unhealthy. Some examples of foods that contain fats are butter, oil, nuts, meat, fish, and some dairy products.
  8. Proteins
    class of nutrients used primarily for structural and regulatory functions.  Many foods contain protein (say: pro-teen), Protein builds, maintains, and replaces the tissues in your body. We mean the stuff your body's made up of.  Your muscles, your organs, and your immune system are made up mostly of protein. Your body uses the protein you eat to make lots of specialized protein molecules that have specific jobs. For instance, your body uses protein to make hemoglobin (say: hee-muh-glow-bin), the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen to every part of your body. the best sources are beef, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes like black beans and lentils.
  9. Minerals
    – Just like vitamins, minerals help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy. The body uses minerals to perform many different functions — from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Some minerals are even used to make hormones or maintain a normal heartbeat.
  10. Water
    Water is essential to life and nutritional health. Water makes up a large percentage of the body, in muscles, fat cells, blood and even bones.. Every cell, tissue and organ requires water to function properly. Water transports nutrients and oxygen teeth cells, provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place, helps to flush out waste products, aids in maintaining a constant body temperature, and keeps the tissues in the skin, mouth, eyes, and nose moist.
  11. Vitamins
    Vitamins and minerals are substances that your body needs to function properly. In addition to carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which your body uses to make new tissue, vitamins and minerals are needed to ensure the health of your cells. vitamins and minerals also facilitate chemical reactions that are needed for your body to function optimally.
  12. What do vitamins do
    The macro-nutrients we know as vitamins are important to incorporate in your daily life by diet and possibly supplements. This is because vitamins are essential for your survival. They keep you alive by performing several tasks, including keeping your immune system in top shape, producing white cells to fight infections and maintaining the health of your brain, bones, heart and the rest of your body. Vitamins Hang Out in Water and Fat
  13. What do you need to metabolize energy?
    This involves using calories in the food we eat and other fuels in order to convert them into energy and other beneficial aspects in the body. This helps the body grow and aids in many physical and mental operations that the body must perform everyday. Metabolism is jointly controlled by the endocrine and nervous systems. Metabolism is responsible for weight loss because those individuals with a higher metabolism rate are able to break down food and sugars faster and more efficiently so they don't store as fat. As we age, our metabolism naturally declines, and weight gain is possible. A person's metabolic rate will determine the number of calories that the person needs to take in every day
  14. What parts of the body are made from protein
    Every cell and tissue in the body contains protein. It is in the muscles, bones, hair, nails and skin, accounting for 20 percent of total body weight. In addition, different proteins work as enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, antibodies and specialized proteins such as hemoglobin and others, constantly repairing body tissues to keep it healthy. Proteins are made of amino acids. There are 20 amino acids. Rather like the alphabet, the amino acid 'letters' can be arranged in millions of different ways to create 'words' and an entire protein 'language'. Depending on the sequence in which they are combined, the resulting protein carries out specific functions in the body.The body gets amino acids from protein-containing foods. Digestive enzymes break proteins into their component parts. The body absorbs the amino acids and then rebuilds them into new sequences that are needed for body growth and maintenance and for the control of body processes.There are two types of amino acids-essential and non-essential. The eight essential amino acids cannot be made in sufficient amounts in the body, and must therefore be supplied in the food. The 12 non-essential amino acids can be made from other amino acids in the diet. Foods containing animal protein, such as meat, milk and eggs, contain ample amounts of all the essential amino acids. Vegetable protein sources have one or more of the essential amino acids missing or have less than the adequate amounts. These foods, however, can be combined in a diet that supplies the required amounts. Most people need to have 10-15 per cent of their total calorie intake in protein; this is about 0.75 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Hence, a 70-kilogram man and a 55-kilogram woman need 50 to 60 grams and 40 to 50 grams per day, respectively. Two or three servings of animal protein foods or four servings of mixed vegetable-protein sources, such as whole grain cereals, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds can easily provide the needed protein. The body cannot store amino acids so it is constantly breaking down and remaking proteins. This 'protein turnover' or recycling process must be constantly fuelled by proteins in the diet. There will often be excesses of some amino acids and of total protein. The liver converts these to glucose, used to provide energy. Since muscles are made of protein, athletes sometimes consume extra protein to achieve greater strength and muscle size. Typical intakes are around 1.4 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight per day. But eating higher amounts of protein does not improve power or strength. The only way to make muscles bigger and stronger is to exercise them. The body uses only the protein it needs and as many high-protein foods are also good sources of fat, a diet with a high amount of protein can also have too many calories, resulting in weight gain and layers of fat. It is essential to good health to eat a well-balanced diet, but there is no need to go overboard on protein
  15. A complete protein has?
    A complete protein (or whole protein) is a source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of humans or other animals.[1] Some incomplete protein sources may contain all essential amino acids, but a complete protein contains them in correct proportions for supporting biological functions in the human body.
  16. What are sources of iron? -
    Iron is essential to all body cells. Iron functions primarily as a carrier of oxygen in the body, both as a part of hemoglobin in the blood and of myoglobin in the muscles. Iron deficiency anemia occurs when there is not enough iron in the red blood cells. This is a common problem often caused by pregnancy, blood loss, and a diet low in iron or poor absorption of iron by the body. There are a variety of possible symptoms of iron deficiency including: HEME iron is found only in meat, fish and poultry and is absorbed much more easily than NON-HEME iron, which is found primarily in fruits, vegetables, dried beans, nuts and grain products.
  17. what effects calcium intake in the body