osvaldo science exam 2
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what is puberty
the time when all the changes of sexual maturity happen
the primary sexual characteristics
the organs of the reproductive system , for women and men.
what are the female primary sexual characteristics?
- the vagina,
- the uterus,
- the fallopian tubes,
- the ovaries
- and the cervix.
the male reporoductive system
includes the penis, the scrotum, and the testicles
what is the vulva?
- the external part of the female reproductive organs.
- located between the legs, it covers the vagina.
what is the vagina?
a hollow muscular tube that extends from the vaginal opening to the cervix.
what is the uterus?
is shaped like a pear; it contains some of the strongest muscles in the femail body
what are the fallopian tubes?
tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus.
what are ovaries?
two oval shaped organs that produce, store and relaease eggs into the fallopian tubes in the process called ovulation
the three parts of the penis?
- the root: attached to the abdomen
- the body:
- the glans: a cone-shaped part at the end
what is a scrotum:
- a loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs below the penis.
- -it contains the testicles. (also called the testes)
what do the testes or testicles do?
- - make testosterone, the primary make sex hormone
- - generate sperm
what is the epididymis?
it is where the spermatzoids are
what is the urethra?
- it travels thourgh the penis,
- it carries semen and urine.
what is the prostate?
It makes a white fluid that is 20-30% of the volume of semen with spermatozoa and seimal vesicle fluid.
What are the seminal vesicles?
they are 2 glands the make a significant portion of the fluid that becomes semen.
what age does puberty start in girls?
around 11 years old.
what age does puberty start in boys?
around 13 in boys.
changes to girls in puberty?
- -they grow taller
- -the breasts grow
- -the body changes
- -the hips get rounder
- -public hair grows
- -the menstrual cycle starts
what is the menstrual cycle?
a small amount of blood from the vagina every month
What changes happen to boys in puberty?
- -the penis and the testicles grow
- -pubic and body hair grows
- -the voice changes
- -hair grows on the face
what is a hormone?
a chemical substance produced by an endocrine gland that has a specific effect on the body
- the sex hormone produced primarily by the ovaries
- -stimulate the growth of the sex organs, the breasts and pubic hair
- -regulate the functioning of the menstrual cycle
a steriod hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle and preganancy
emotional changes that happen in puberty
- - more independent
- -mood changes (different strong emotions)
- -depression about body changes and school pressure
how does the menstrual cycle start?
- estrogen production increase in the girl's body
- -the egg travels in the fallopian tubes for 3 or 4 days
days 1 to 5 of the menstrual cycle:
the period begins
days 6 to 13 of the menstrual cycle
the egg matures
days 15 to 22 of the menstral cycle
- day 14 - ovulation happens
- the egg starts to move through the fallopian tubes to the uterus
days 23 to 28 of the menstrual cycle
the not fertilized egg gets to the uterus
what is FECUNDATION
when the sperm joins with the egg in the fallopian tube, and a new being starts to grow in the uterus
what is pregnancy?
how long does it take?
- the process since fecundation until delivery of the baby.
- it takes 9 months.
what are the symptoms of pregancy
- nausea and vomitting
- changes in sleeping,
- the menstrual period stops,
- headaches and cramps
- the stomach grows
development of the baby in pregnancy:
- the baby finishes its development and is ready to be born
- - around 50 cm size
precautions during pregancy
- -do exercise
- -visit the doctor a lot
- -eat fruit and vegetables
- -drink the correct medicines
- -don't drink alcohol
- -be calm
- don't smoke
the delivery of the baby
happens at 9 months
the 1st stage of delivery
- -the uterus makes contractions to push the baby out
- -the cervix opens to 10 cm
second stage of delivery
- fetal expulsion:
- -the cervix is fully dilated
- -the baby emerges
third stage of delivery
the umbilical cord and the placenta emerge
What is energy?
the ability to do work.
What is potencial energy?
- It's stored energy like
- *the energy of the water in a dam.
- *the gas in a car
the energy of motion and movement.
What is radiant energy
the energy of light. for example, the sun
the energy of motion. for example when you run.
- created in power plants
- by dividing the atom
- the energy produced by gravity.
- example is the earth's gravitational force.
- chemical reaction that causes changes.
- can be in food or fuel.
- for example, a battery, sugar
when motion, light or heat is produced by an electrical current
when tempreture or motion is caused by heat
- energy produced by sound vibrations
- for example, the radio
- the ability to attract or repell because of a magnetic field.
- for example a magnet.
the wind is used to produce for example electricity
- heat from the earth.
- examples hot springs.
energy produced by earthquakes.
1. What is the nervous system?
- A network of cells and neurons.
- It controls body movement and thought.
The specialized cells of the nervous system are called ____________
what are the names of the three parts of the neuron
What are the synapses?
Synapses are connections between different neurons to transmit information.
Write the name of the two main parts of the nervous system.
- the Central Nervous System (CNS)
- the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
What are the main components of the Central Nervous System?
- the brain
- - the spinal cord.
What is the main component of the Peripheral Nervous System?
What is the function of the brain stem?
It maintains blood pressure, heartbeat, respiration and digestion.
What is the main function of the Cerebellum?
It controls balance and posture and helps movement.
What is the main function of the cerebrum?
It interprets information from the senses, controls muscles, thinking and language.
What is the main function of the Spinal Cord?
It sends information from the nerves to the brain.
Why is the brain important?
You need your brain to think, to act, to move, even to breathe and for your blood to circulate. You can't live if you have no brain.
4 actions to contribute to the right functioning of the nervous system?
- - Don't take drugs.
- - Drink lots of water.
- - Do excercise.
- - Eat a good diet with lots of fruit and vegetables.
4 consequences of consuming drugs for the nervous system.
- - neurons die.
- - you can lose your memory
- - you can have accidents
- - motor coordination can be damaged
explain 3 drugs and give examples
1 - depressants: they make you relax. examples alcohol, and cannabis.
2- stimulants: they stimulate the brain and increase the heart rate and blood pressure. examples: caffeine in coffee.
3 - Hallucinogens: they affect the perception, you see imaginary things. Examples: LSD and magic mushrooms.
4 ways to prevent the consumption of drugs in young people.
- 1 -Do exercise and sport.
- 2 -Focus on your life objectives.
- 3- Don't be with people who take drugs.
- 4- spend time with your family.
What is the main function of the endocrine system?
It controls cell growth through hormones and glands.
What is a gland?
A gland is a group of cells that produces and secretes chemicals.
What is a hormone?
Chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body.
How do hormones travel in the body?
In the blood.
What main hormone is produced by the pituitary gland?
What hormone is produced by the testes?
testosterone, the male sex hormone
What main hormone is produced in the ovaries?
What hormone is produced by the pancreas?
it controls the amount of glucose in the blood
They control female characteristics and the menstrual cycle
it controls body growth and development
It controls how cells release energy
it controls the body's reaction to anger, fright or fear
the adrenal gland
They control male characeristics
it controls the amount of calcium and phosphorous in the blood
locate the 7 glands in the body
What gland and hormone are related with diabetes?
- gland is the pancreas
- hormone is insulin
Gigantism is caused because of an excess of which hormone?
Growth disorders are related to which gland?
the pituitary gland
Which two glands are related to osteoporosis?
- the thyroid gland
- the pituitary
What is osetoporosis
it is weak bones
an excess of thyroid hormone results in
A deficiency of thyroid hormone results in
What does the big bang theory refer to?
A theory about the beginning of the universe, time and space.
It was a detonation or flash.
A dense hot ball of hydrogen and helium began expanding quickly.
Like an expansion of time and space.
What is the main difference between the Steady State Universe and the
In the big bang theory, the density of matter is expanding.
In steady state universe, the density of matter is constant over time. the universe is constant it doesn't begin or end.
Why is the moon important to life on earth?
- it gives us the tides and
- regulates the orbit of the planet.
What abiotic factors are important to life on earth?
Light: we need it for energy, it controls biological rhythms.
Heat: necessary for animals and plants
Atmosphere: to protect from dangerous rays from the sun, and to breathe.
Water: all living beings need water to survive, we need it in many organic processes
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