anticipation of activity or emotional anxiety may trigger this system which then sends excitatory input to the inspiratory area increasing the rate and depth of ventilation.
an increase in body temperature as occurs in fever or vigorous exercise, increases the rate of respiration
stimulated by sudden coldness is an abscence of breath.
a sudden sever pain brings about a brief apnea, but a prolonged pain increases respiration rate. visceral pain may slow the rate of respiration
stretching the anal sphincter muscle
this action increases respiratory rate and is sometimes used to stimulate respiration in a newborn baby or someone who has stopped breathing
irritation of airways
brings about an immediate cessation of breathing followed by coughing or sneezing
a sudden rise in blood pressure increases respiratory rate
is a disorder characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway sensitivity to a variety of stimuli and airway obstruction.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
characterized by chronic and recurrent obstruction of airflow, which increases airway resistance. most commonly caused by cigarettes
is a disorder characterized by the destruction of the alveoli, producing abnormally large spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation. With less surface area for gas exchange o2 diffusion across the damaged respiratory membrane is reduced.
characterized by excessive secretion of bronchial mucous accompanied by a productive cough that lasts for atleast three months of the year for two years. cigarette smoke is the leading cause
is the leading cause of cancer death. Emphysema is commonly a precursor
is an acute infection or inflammation of the alveoli. It is the most common infectious cause of death. When certain microbes enter the lungs of susceptible people they release damaging toxins, stimulating inflammation and immune responses that have damaging side effects.
caused by a bacteria. It affects the lungs and plureabut may involve other parts of the body. Symptoms- fatigue, weight loss, lethargy, anorexia, a low-grade fever, night sweats, cough, chest pain
coryza or common cold
rhino virusis are a group of viruses responsible for this. symptoms include sneezing, excess nasal secretion, dry cough and congestion.
is also caused by a virus. Its symptoms include chills, fever, headache, and muscular aches. It can become life threatening and may develop into pneumonia
is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces and alveoli of the lungs. It may arise from increased permeability of the pulmonary capillaries. Most common symptom is dyspnea. others include wheezing, rapid breathing, restlessness, a feeling of suffocation
is an inherited disease of secretory epithelia that affects the airways, liver, pancreas, small intestine, and sweat glands. the cause is a genetic mutation affecting a transporter protein that carries chloride across the plasma membrane
is a sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy baby during sleep. It is more common in premature infants and often happens between 2-4 months but can occur between 2 weeks to 6 months. No known cause
oxygen starvation due to low atmospheric oxygen or interference with ventilation, external respiration or internal respiration
inhalation of a foreign substance such as water, food, or a foreign body into the bronchial tree. Also the drawing of a substance in or out by suction.
painful or laboured breathing
slow and shallow breathing
chronic or acute inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose due to viruses, bacteria or irritants. Excessive mucous production produces a runny nose, nasal congestion and post nasal drip