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- •Transient,neurophysiological response to a stimulus that excites a coordinated system of components; informs us about relationship to stimulus, and prepare us to deal with it
- Different from a mood; quick while moods are longer lasting
- Help to solve complex social coordination problems; are complex and differentiated
- can have both self-conscious emotions and moral emotions
Components of Emotion
- Expressive Behavior: Face, Voice, Gestures, etc.
- Subjective Experience: Feelings, sensations, etc
- Physiological Reactions: Heart beating, breathing, sweating, etc
- Cognitions: Thoughts, attributions,
- Motor behavior: Running, hitting, freezing
Language and emotion
Language allows humans to make fine distinctions among emotions
- emotions associated with self-reflective processes,
- Example: guilt, shame, pride,
Because humans can cognitively represent other people as intentional agents, we can have moral emotions, such as contempt and disgust
Ekman's 6 universal emotions
- Human emotion expressed universally in human faces; based on evolutionary theory.
- Anger, Fear, Disgust, Surprise, Happiness, and Sadness
Darwin and Emotions
- Emotions are biologically based and evolutionary adaptive
- All humans express emotions in faces in the same way
- Facial expressions of emotion have communicative and adaptive value
- Four studies that found evidence for universality of emotional expressions
- Study One: Judgements of facial expressions by literate cultures
- Study Two: Judgements of facial expressions by preliterate cultures
- Study three: judgements of facial expressions posed by members of preliterate cultures
- Study four: Spontaneous Facial Expressions of emotions
events or situations that trigger an emotion; also known as emotion elicitors
Cognitve process by which people evaluate events, situations that lead to them having emotions
Universality in Physiological Responses to Emotion
- Each of universal emotions, when signaled by universal expressions, have a distinct and discrete physiological signature in autonomic nervous system and central nervous system
- Emotions help individuals respond to emotional stimuli by preparing body to engage in activity (e.g., fear-flee; anger-fight)
- This finding replicated in cross-cultural studies (e.g.,Chinese and European americans; Indonesians)
Emotional response system coherence
- Each emotional response manifestation (facial expression, physiological response, cognitive appraisals, etc.) is related to the other; emotional response is a SYSTEM of related phenomena.
- Example:The facial expression is correlated with the physiological response, which is also correlated with the cognitive appraisal.
Cultural Differences in Emotion Antecedent
- Cultural differences in frequencies of antecedents that bring about an emotion.
- Death of family/close friends, physical separation from loved ones, and world news triggered sadness for Europeans and americans more frequently than it did for Japanese; Problems in relationships triggered sadness more frequently for Japanese
- Situations involving relationships triggered anger more frequently for Americans than Japanese; Situations involving strangers triggered anger more frequently for Japanese
Cultural Differences in Emotion Appraisal
- Cultural differences in appraisal processes requiring judgments of fairness and morality
- African countries appraised situations as more immoral, more unfair, and more externally caused than other countries
- Latin America appraised situations as less immoral than other countries
Cultural Display Rules
- Despite evidence for the universality of expression of basic emotions, there are also cultural differences. This discrepancy can be explained by cultural display rules
- Deamplification: Express less than actually felt.
- Amplification: Express more than actually felt
- Neutralization: Show nothing
- Qualification: Show the emotion but with another emotion to comment on it
- Masking: Mask or conceal feelings by showing something else
- Simulation: Show an emotion when not really felt
- Individualistic: Okay to express negative feelings; less need to display positive feelings
- Collectivist: Suppress expressions of negative feelings; more pressure to display positive feelings
- Individualistic: Suppress expressions of negative feelings; okay to express positive feelings as would toward ingroup
- Collectivist: Encouraged to express negative feelings; suppress display of positive feelings reserved for ingroups
Rules on how emotional expressions are recognized
ability to recognize emotions of others of same culture better than those from different culture
- the words and vocabulary that make
- up a language.
Syntax and Grammar
- system of rules governing how words are strung together
- Example: in English, we add an s to indicate plurality; adjectives come before nouns.
- Sound/ system of rules governing how we pronounce words (new and sew are pronounced
smallest, most basic units of sound in a language
smallest, most basic units of meaning
- rules governing what words mean
- Example: a triangle is a three sided geometric figure with angles
- system of rules governing how language is interpreted in social context
- Example: I am thirsty could mean “please give me some water” or it could simply be stating a fact, depending on the social context.
- speakers of different language think differently because of differences in languages
- Syntactic and grammatical differences between languages provide some support
- Less support for lexical differences
- all behaviors that occur during communication that do not include verbal language
- serve as emblems, speech illustrators, conversation regulators, and convey emotions
information and meaning exchanged during communication—knowledge, ideas, concepts, thoughts, emotions
Process by which people select, imbed messages in signals, and send signals to others
Specific verbal language and nonverbal behaviors that are encoded when message sent
Sensory modalities by which signals sent and messages retrieved; i.e. sight and sound
Process by which people receives signal from encoder and translates those signals to meaningful messages
Process of Communication
The process of communication is: a sender encodes a message into a set of signals. These signals are conveyed through a variety of channels. The receiver decodes the signals to interpret the message. Once a message is interpreted, the decoder then becomes the encoder, relaying back his or her own messages via the same process.
Barriers to Effective Intercultural communication
- Assumptions of similarities
- Language differences
- Nonverbal misinterpretations
- Preconceptions and stereotypes
- Tendency to evaluate
- High anxiety or tension
Assumptions of Similarites
People may naively assume that others are the same as they are, or at least are similar enough to make communication easy.
When people are trying to communicate in a language in which they are not entirely fluent, people often think that a word, phrase, or sentence has one and only one meaning—the meaning they intend to convey. To make this assumption is to ignore all the other possible sources of signals and messages—tone of voice, gestures, etc.
Misunderstandings in relation to the interpretation of nonverbal behaviors can easily lead to conflicts or confrontations that break down the communication process.
Preconceptions and sterotypes
Overreliance on stereotypes can prevent us from viewing others and their communications objectively, and from searching for cues that may help us interpret their communications in the way they were intended.
Tendency to evaluate
Different cultural values may generate negative evaluations of others
immigrant bilinguals tend to affiliate themselves with values and beliefs of the culture associated with the language they are currently speaking
Minority group-affiliation hypothesis
immigrant bilinguals purposefully embody the majority culture’s stereotypes
Code frame switching
bilinguals switch back and forth from one cultural meaning system to the other when accessing one language or another
Foreign language processing difficulties
cognitive difficulties while processing information due to lack of fluency in speaking a language
Foreign language effect
temporary decline in thinking ability of people using foreign language