PSY 339 Ch 8 and 9

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PSY 339 Ch 8 and 9
2013-05-20 20:42:31
Social Cultural Psychology

Ch 6 and 7
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  1. Emotion
    • •Transient,neurophysiological response to a stimulus that excites a coordinated system of components; informs us about relationship to stimulus, and prepare us to deal with it
    • Different from a mood; quick while moods are longer lasting
    • Help to solve complex social coordination problems; are complex and differentiated
    • can have both self-conscious emotions  and moral emotions
  2. Components of Emotion
    • Expressive Behavior: Face, Voice, Gestures, etc.
    • Subjective Experience: Feelings, sensations, etc
    • Physiological Reactions: Heart beating, breathing, sweating, etc
    • Cognitions: Thoughts, attributions, 
    • Motor behavior: Running, hitting, freezing
  3. Language and emotion
    Language allows humans to make fine distinctions among emotions
  4. Self-conscious emotions
    • emotions associated with self-reflective processes,
    • Example: guilt, shame, pride,
    • embarrassment
  5. Moral Emotions
    Because humans can cognitively represent other people as intentional agents, we can have moral emotions, such as contempt and disgust
  6. Ekman's 6 universal emotions
    • Human emotion expressed universally in human faces; based on evolutionary theory. 
    • Anger, Fear, Disgust, Surprise, Happiness, and Sadness
  7. Darwin and Emotions
    • Emotions are biologically based and evolutionary adaptive
    • All humans express emotions in faces in the same way
    • Facial expressions of emotion have communicative and adaptive value
  8. Universality Studies
    • Four studies that found evidence for universality of emotional expressions
    • Study One: Judgements of facial expressions by literate cultures
    • Study Two: Judgements of facial expressions by preliterate cultures
    • Study three: judgements of facial expressions posed by members of preliterate cultures
    • Study four: Spontaneous Facial Expressions of emotions
  9. Emotion antecedents
    events or situations that trigger an emotion; also known as emotion elicitors
  10. Emotion Appraisal
    Cognitve process by which people evaluate events, situations that lead to them having emotions
  11. Universality in Physiological Responses to Emotion
    • Each of universal emotions, when signaled by universal expressions, have a distinct and discrete physiological signature in autonomic nervous system and central nervous system
    • Emotions help individuals respond to emotional stimuli by preparing body to engage in activity (e.g., fear-flee; anger-fight)
    • This finding replicated in cross-cultural  studies (e.g.,Chinese and European  americans; Indonesians)
  12. Emotional response system coherence
    • Each emotional response manifestation (facial expression, physiological response, cognitive appraisals, etc.) is related to the other; emotional response is a SYSTEM of related phenomena.
    • Example:The facial expression is correlated with the physiological response, which is also correlated with the cognitive appraisal.
  13. Cultural Differences in Emotion Antecedent
    • Cultural differences in frequencies of antecedents that bring about an emotion.
    • Death of family/close friends, physical separation from loved ones, and world news triggered sadness for Europeans and  americans more frequently than it did for Japanese; Problems in relationships triggered sadness more frequently for Japanese
    • Situations involving relationships triggered anger more frequently for Americans than Japanese; Situations involving strangers triggered anger more frequently for Japanese
  14. Cultural Differences in Emotion Appraisal
    • Cultural differences in appraisal processes  requiring judgments of fairness and morality
    • African countries appraised situations as more immoral, more unfair, and more externally caused than other countries
    • Latin America appraised situations as less immoral than other countries
  15. Cultural Display Rules
    • Despite evidence for the universality of expression of basic emotions, there are also cultural differences. This discrepancy can be explained by cultural display rules
    • Deamplification: Express less than actually felt.
    • Amplification: Express more than actually felt
    • Neutralization: Show nothing
    • Qualification: Show the emotion but with another emotion to comment on it
    • Masking: Mask or conceal feelings by showing something else
    • Simulation: Show an emotion when not really felt
  16. Self-Ingroup Relations
    • Individualistic: Okay to express negative feelings; less need to display positive feelings
    • Collectivist: Suppress expressions of negative feelings; more pressure to display positive feelings
  17. Self-Outgroup Relations
    • Individualistic: Suppress expressions of negative feelings; okay to express positive feelings as would toward ingroup
    • Collectivist: Encouraged to express negative feelings; suppress display of positive feelings reserved for ingroups
  18. Decoding rules
    Rules on how emotional expressions are recognized
  19. Ingroup advantage
    ability to recognize emotions of others of same culture better than those from different culture
  20. Lexicon
    • the words and vocabulary that make
    • up a language.
  21. Syntax and Grammar
    • system of rules governing how words are strung together
    • Example: in English, we add an s to indicate plurality; adjectives come before nouns.
  22. Phonology
    • Sound/ system of rules governing how we pronounce words (new and sew are pronounced
    • differently
  23. Phonemes
    smallest, most basic units of sound in a language
  24. Morphemes
    smallest, most basic units of meaning
  25. Semantics
    • rules governing what words mean
    • Example: a triangle is a three sided geometric figure with angles
  26. Pragmatics
    • system of rules governing how language is interpreted in social context
    • Example: I am thirsty could mean “please give me some water” or it could simply be stating a fact, depending on the social context.
  27. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    • speakers of different language think differently because of differences in languages
    • Syntactic and grammatical differences between languages provide some support 
    • Less support for lexical differences
  28. Nonverbal behaviors
    • all behaviors that occur during communication that do not include verbal language
    • serve as emblems, speech illustrators, conversation regulators, and convey emotions
  29. Message
    information and meaning exchanged during  communication—knowledge, ideas, concepts, thoughts, emotions
  30. Encoding
    Process by which people select, imbed messages in signals, and send signals to others
  31. Signal
    Specific verbal language and nonverbal behaviors that are encoded when message sent
  32. Channels
    Sensory modalities by which signals sent and messages retrieved; i.e. sight and sound
  33. Decoding
    Process by which people receives signal from encoder and translates those signals to meaningful messages
  34. Process of Communication
    The process of communication is: a sender encodes a message into a set of signals. These signals are conveyed through a variety of channels. The receiver decodes the signals to interpret the message. Once a message is interpreted, the decoder then becomes the encoder, relaying back his or  her own messages via the same process.
  35. Barriers to Effective Intercultural communication
    • Assumptions of similarities
    • Language differences
    • Nonverbal misinterpretations
    • Preconceptions and stereotypes
    • Tendency to evaluate
    • High anxiety or tension
  36. Assumptions of Similarites
    People may naively assume that others are the same as they are, or at least are similar enough to make communication easy.
  37. Language differences
    When people are trying to communicate in a language in which they are not entirely fluent, people often think that a word, phrase, or sentence has one and only one meaning—the meaning they intend to convey. To make this assumption is to ignore all the other possible sources of signals and messages—tone of voice, gestures, etc.
  38. Nonverbal misinterpretations
    Misunderstandings in relation to the interpretation of nonverbal behaviors can easily lead to conflicts or confrontations that break down the communication process.
  39. Preconceptions and sterotypes
    Overreliance on stereotypes can prevent us from viewing others and their  communications objectively, and from searching for cues that may help us interpret their communications in the way they were intended.
  40. Tendency to evaluate
    Different cultural values may generate negative evaluations of others
  41. Culture-affiliation hypothesis
    immigrant bilinguals tend to affiliate themselves with values and beliefs of the culture associated with the language they are currently speaking
  42. Minority group-affiliation hypothesis
    immigrant bilinguals purposefully embody the majority culture’s stereotypes
  43. Code frame switching
    bilinguals switch back and forth from one cultural meaning system to the other when accessing one language or another
  44. Foreign language processing difficulties
    cognitive difficulties while processing information due to lack of fluency in speaking a language
  45. Foreign language effect
    temporary decline in thinking ability of people using foreign language