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misbah
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Thermal expansion
 L = original length
 T = temperature

Volume expansion for liquids

Internal energy of a system
 Work done by the system = positive
 Work done on the system = negative
 Heat flow into the system = positive
 Heat flow out of system = negative

Heat of transformation  phase changes
Q = mL
L = heat of transformation of a system

Work done on the system
 P = pressure
 constant volume means no work

Energy Spontaneity  entropy
Reversible precess:
L = either heat of fusion or vaporization

Coulomb's law
 Magnitude of electrostatic force between two charges

Electric field  produced by an electric charge
 q_{o = }test charge
 F = force felt by test charge
 units: N/C

Electrical potential Energy

Electric potential
 volts = J/C

Tesla, gauss
Tesla = Ns/mC
gauss = 10^{4 }tesla

Current
 units: C/s = ampere

Magnetic field at center of current carrying loop
units: tesla

Magnetic Field force
 v= velocity
 θ= angle between qv and B
 Max when θ=90 : qvB
 Zero when θ=0

Right hand rule
 thumb  velocity
 fingers  magnetic field
 palm  force

Orbit radius of a charge
 set centripatal force equal to magnetic force
 qvB=mv^{2}/2

Magnetic field of uniform circular motion

velocity of a uniform circular motion

Magnetic force on a current carrying wire

Resistance
 units: Ω
 L = length
 A = cross sectional area

Ohm's law
Voltage drop
V = iR

Power of a resistor
P = iV
V = voltage drop across resistor

Power lost during transmission, dissapated by resistor
P = i^{2}R
P = V^{2}/R

Voltage drop across resistors in series
 Current through all resistors is equal to current of total resistance.
 Voltage drop across each resistor will be different.  use current to calculate it
 Vs are the voltage drop across each resistor
 VT is the voltage coming out of the battery.

Total resistance of resistors in series

Voltage drop across resistors in parallel
Voltage drop across each path is the same, but current is split up. More current goes through resistor of least resistance.

Total resistance of resistors in parallel

capacitance
units: farad = c/V

capacitance with two plates
 A = area of overlap
 d = distance between plates

Electric field in a capacitor
 direction of field is away from positive plate.

Potential energy of a capacitor

Dielectrics  change capacitance
C' = kC
 C'= new capacitance
 C=original capacitance

Electromotive force ε
voltage across terminals of battery when there is no charge flowing

