Psyc 357 Exam 2

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Psyc 357 Exam 2
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Psyc 357 Exam 2
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  1. Mastery values
    The belief that individuals using the power of science and technology must exercise full control over society, environment, and their own bodies.
  2. Romanticism
    A comprehensive viewpoint of society and human behavior based on the idealistic enchantment with the individuality, spontaneity, and passion.
  3. Spiritualism
    Belief that the living could correspond with the deceased through special channels of communication
  4. Clairvoyance
    Clear seeing, it stood for the supposed extrasensory power of an individual. The power to see or feel objects or events that could not be perceived by the senses or measure objectively.
  5. Phrenology
    Connecting the size and shape of the brain with human behavior and the individual’s personality.
  6. Sensorium
    Capable of receiving and combining certain qualities transmitted through nerves.
  7. Psychophysics
    An Exact science of the functional relations of dependency between body and mind.
  8. Psychological compounding
    The process that connects psychological elements by association.
  9. Apperception
    Process of organizing mental elements together AKA active process of attention.
  10. Utilitarianism
    The value of an object or action is defined by its utility or usefulness. Focuses on the consequences of a behavioral act.
  11. Pragmatism
    A way of approaching situations or solving problems that emphasizes practical applications and consequences. Refers to a specific philosophical school..
  12. Functionalism
    Focused on the dynamic purposes of psychological experience rather than on its structure. Mental states are influenced by changing behavior within a complex environment.
  13. Creationist approach
    Species that explain the creation of the universe and of all living organisms as an act of god.
  14. Natural selection
    A species evolves as a result of competition, which serves as a filter preserving the organisms that have advantageous characteristics.
  15. Social engineering
    The use of science by the government or other social institutions to improved society through policies.
  16. Eugenics
    Name of a theory that proposed a way of improving society by improving people’s
  17. Hereditary features
    Of, relating to, or denoting factors that can be transmitted genetically from one generation to another.
  18. Recapitulation theory
    Designed by G. Stanley Hall. Relies heavily on evolutionary views. Children will be to their full potential if not forced with constraints but go through stages freely. There are 3 elements: 1) Embrace evolutionary theory/never ending adjustment to changing social conditions. 2) Call on psychologists to study childhood and adolescence within a specific social context. 3) Amon the first in psychology to pay special attention to adolescence as a stage in human development.
  19. School psychology movement
    A collective attempt by some professionals in the US and Canada to bring psychology into the classroom and use psychology in developing solutions to specific educational problems.
  20. Taylorism
    Everything must be regulated: every operation, movement and step.
  21. Hypnology
    Study of hypnosis by Bekhterev, used to treat some behavioral problems and attempted to provide evidence of therapeutic success. Specific forms of energy exchange take place between a therapist and a client.
  22. Psychopathology
    A term used to reflect the competition between psychology and medicine. From a psych standpoint, psychopathology is the brand of psychology concerned with abnormal psych. The study of its origins, development, and manifestation of psych disfunction.
  23. Neurosis
    An individuals persistent, overwhelming anxiety and avoident behavior.
  24. Hysteria
    Psychological and physical complaints without and identifiable anatomical defect of physiological malady.
  25. Neurosyphilis
    Syphilis of the central nervous system.
  26. Medicalization
    The required attention of medical professionals to treat persistent violence, sex crimes, homelessness, and chronic drug abuse.. Reflected the way many people understood mental illness.
  27. Dementia praecox
    Disturbances of orientation, thought, attention, emotion and will; hallucinations. Appears in three forms: Hebephrenic, catatonic, and paranoid. The resembles today’s schizophrenia.
  28. clinical-pathological method
    Comparing clinical observations of a patient’s abnormal symptoms with the reliable date about brain pathology, most likely obtained during an autopsy on the patients brain.
  29. Degeneration
    A generational regress in physical and psychological traits.
  30. Moral therapy
    The assumption that some forms of mental illness results from serious misfortunes in a patient’s life. Therefore to return to normal mental state, patient should experience passion and trust. Through learning and hope, lost qualities of good behavior could be restored.
  31. Social hygiene movement
    An eclectic conglomerate of intellectual and health care professionals whose beliefs were driven by a mix of Darwinism, progressivism, social engineering and prejudice.
  32. Emmanuel Church Healing Movement.
    Social movement and therapeutic practice that turned the attention of millions of people to psychology and its practical applications.
  33. Anthropomorphism
    A type of description or scientific approach to portray animal behavior in humans.
  34. Collective reflexology
    The study of the emergence, development, and behavior or groups that display their collective activity in unity.
  35. Conditioned reflexes
    Reflexes only appear under certain conditions. Reflexes that must be learned.
  36. Induction
    The process, according to Pavlov, or confluence between excitement and inhibition.
  37. Inhibition
    A feeling that makes one self-conscious and unable to act in a relaxed and natural way.
  38. Learning curve
    The first couple of times trying to do something it may take more time, but the more you do something correctly, the quicker you can do it.
  39. Parsimony
    The scientific principle standing for the necessity to seek the simplest explanations available to explain complex phenomena.
  40. Reflexology
    Bekhterev’s idea or theory about objective psychology and the concepts of reflex and adaptation.
  41. Objective psychology
    Focused on behavior and physiological processes taking place within the brain and the nervous system.
  42. Second signaling system
    Language as a form of communication. The belief that words are just sounds, until a person associated a meaning of those words.
  43. Strength of nervous system
    A reflection of the functional ability of the neurons to maintain the state of activation or excitement without developing self protecting inhibition.
  44. Tropism
    A physical and chemical reaction of orientation of the organism in a field of force.
  45. Unconditioned reflexes
    Basic biological functions. You don’t have to learn how to do it. (salivating when you see really appealing food)
  46. Why did Ebbinghaus use nonsense syllables for his study?
    So it would have no apparent meaning in the German language.
  47. What was Ebbinghaus’s most important contribution
    The use of the methods of natural science to study memory.
  48. What were Wundt’s 3 goals for psychology?
    1) Analysis of elements of consciousness 2) finding the manner of connection of the elements 3) finding of the laws of this connection.
  49. According to Wundt, sensations as elementary parts of experience are activated by signals stimulating sense organs and producing responses in the brain.  The other set of elements of experience are what?
    Feelings
  50. Explain the experimental introspection of Wundt.
    1)The observer should be in a position to observe the phenomena under investigation 2) The observer should be in a state of anticipatory attention. 3) The experiment should be repeated 4) The conditions under which the observed phenomena occur should be determined through variation of the experimental condition.
  51. What was Wundt’s “second psychology”?
    Study of “higher mental processes”
  52. Brentano divided the acts into what three categories
    1) Associated with sensing and imaging 2) Associated with judging, such as accepting or recalling. 3) Associated with psychological phenomena such as hating or loving.
  53. What was Carl Strumpf’s  main contribution to psychology
    Cognitive evaluative theory
  54. Edward Titchener wanted to build experimental psychology as an exact counterpart of
    Modern biology
  55. Titchener stated that Sensations as mental elements have four basic characteristics
    Quality, intensity, duration, and clearness.
  56. What was William James’ theory of emotions?
    He challenged common belief that emotion came first, followed by bodily reaction. He believed it was the other way around, and that emotions are tied into bodily expressions and we simply cannot exist without them.
  57. Calkins’s self-psychology had three founding concepts, what were they?
    The self, the object, and that of the self’s relation or attitude toward that object.
  58. Calkins referred to emotions as what?
    Passive experiences
  59. Explain pragmatism and utilitarianism.
    • Pragmatism: The doctrine that holds that the meaning of an idea or proposition lies in it’s observable practical consequences. Think solving problems practically.
    • Utilitarianism:  The approach that suggests that the value of an object or action is determined by its utility or usefulness.
  60. What were Galton’s twin studies about?
    He wanted to see if twins who shared the same natural features become different when raised in dissimilar environments.
  61. Who coined the term mental test and what did this term mean?
    Cattell. Definition: The procedures used to measure mental energy of the participants of psychological experiments.
  62. What was criminology?
    A field of research attempting to explain why crime takes place.
  63. Lombroso believed that most violent criminals have a what?
    A biological predisposition.
  64. How does heredity interacts with environment according to Lombroso.
    To produce individuals with various potentials for criminality.
  65. Name the most important differences between madness and neurosis.
    Patients with neurosis are aware of their problems and acknowledge the oddness of their behavior.
  66. What was some Terminology Referring to Mental Illness in the 19th Century?
    Patients-Lunatics, feebleminded, the insane, the distracted, the distempered in minds, fools. Custody places and treatment facilities- Asylums, madhouses, jails, almshouses, fools’ houses. Therapists- Alienists, medical superintendents, neurologists, psychiatrists.
  67. The Case of Phineas Gage provided evidence of what?
    That the destruction of certain brain areas could seriously affect important psychological functions.
  68. What was Gage like after his accident?
    He used to be smart, reliable and efficient worker, after the accident he was erratic, rude, often impatient and stubborn.
  69. Paul Broca believed what area of the brain is involved in speech, especially in the case of  Monsieur Tan?
    Tied to lesions of the third frontal convolution of the brain/pathology of the frontal lobe. Ability to speak is based on several brain functions.
  70. Explain the phenomenon of medicalization of deviant behavior.
    A way to treat violence, sex crimes, homelessness or chronic drug abuse with medicine.
  71. What were so-called turf battles in the field of mental illness about?
    Between the psychologist and the physicians and psychiatrists. The medical field workers believed that they should exclude psychologist. The only people able to get a license to practice legally were medical doctors. This also limited the research that psychologists were doing; they were only allowed to conduct tests, but were not able to interpret them or give recommendations.
  72. What were some Functions of Mental Asylums in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries
    • 1) They incapacitated  some violent individuals, providing relief for families and communities. 
    • 2) Supposed to provide treatment
    • 3) Gave medical professionals a unique opportunity to collect empirical data about a wide range of symptoms of mental illness and test various methods of treatments.
  73. What was moral therapy?
    The assumption that some forms of mental illness results from serious misfortunes in a patient’s life. Therefore to return to normal mental state, patient should experience passion and trust. Through learning and hope, lost qualities of good behavior could be restored.
  74. Witmer described what two disorders?
    Autistic disorder and dyslexia
  75. What was the puzzle box, and how did it work?
    A specially designed cage or enclosure that opens by tripping a latch. It worked with 3 procedure: 1) he counted the number of trials attempted before each animal escaped from the box. 2) he measured the time that the animal took to escape. 3) he measure habit formation.
  76. Explain the learning curve concept created by Thorndike
    Thorndike believed it should take a cat a lo of time to escape from the puzzle box, but after each trial the cat spent less time and have fewer trials before a successful solution.
  77. What were Pavlov’s characteristics of the nervous system?
    Has three functions: strength, balance, and agility.
  78. Name two central concepts of Bekhterev’s theory.
    Reflex and adaptation
  79. What was collective reflexology?
    The study of the emergence, development, and behavior or groups that display their collective activity in unity.
  80. How did Bekhterev understand immortality?
    He believed in the concept of energy. Energy does not disappear but transforms from one form to another.
  81. Name three founding principles of behaviorism.
    1) stimulus and response (behavior is a set of responses to specific signals) 2) habit formation (bahavioral responses become useful and retained 3) habit integration (simple reactions develop in complex acts)
  82. How did Watson explain mental illness?
    That the cause of mental illness and deviance were maladaptive habits, and it was a habit disturbance.
  83. How did Watson understand emotions?
    By being divided into 3 categories: Love, fear and rage. These are conditioned responses or habits learned in childhood.
  84. Why Was Watson’s Behaviorism Popular?
    1) he converted language of “common sense” into the language of experimental research. 2) Simplicity: understandable and attractive to many psychologists 3) Controversial studies 4) practicality 5) Inspiration
  85. Watson believed that psychology should become a branch of what science?
    Of natural science.

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