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Reinforcers do what ?(2)
- Increase strength & frequency of desired behaviour
- Increase in target behaviour MUST result
Pleasant stimulus ADDED after behaviour
unpleasant stimulus REMOVED by a behaviour
Punishments do what?(2)
- Reduce frequency and strength of undesired behaviour
- Useful for short term behaviour change
Unpleasant stimulus ADDED after undesired behaviour
Pleasant stimulus REMOVED after undesirable behaviour
Shaping behaviour (4)
- Teaching something in small steps
- shaper seeks to change behaviour by controlling consequences
- Motive of thing being 'shaped' is to gain rewards and avoid unwanted consequences.
- "awarding successful approximations of the desired response"
- Developing a ritual due to being RANDOMLY consecutively rewarded for behaviour
- Presumed connection between an act and it's consequences/rewards
- Occurs when reinforces are withheld
- Spontaneous recovery may occur
- Occur same as in classical conditioning
- Discrimination involved reinforcing for a stimulus, but not reinforcing for a similar stimulus
Discriminative Stimulus does what?
- signals whether a certain behaviour is likely to be rewarded, ignored or punished
- eg children misbehave to some teachers because in presence of teacher (discriminative stimulus) they know their behaviour will lead to punishment, but not with others
fulfill basic physical need for survival eg food, water, sleep, sex
Secondary reinforces (7)
- eg praise
- good grades
- signals of approval
Factors influencing OC (3)
- The magnitude of reinforcement - reinforcement = better acquisition of response is faster, rate of response is higher, extinction resistance is greater
- The immediacy of reinforcement - even a short delay obscures the relationship between behaviour and reinforcer
- The motivation of the learner - eagerness helps learning
Both CC and OC have (5)
- spontaneous recovery
- depend on associative learning
Differences of CC and OC (3)
- CC depends on association between two stimuli, associates with what becomes before the response
- OC depends on association between a response and it's consequence, associates with what comes after the response
- CC subject is passive and responds to environment
- OC subject is active and operates on environment
Define 'Instinctual drift'
When training an animal to do the opposite of their instinctive behaviour, they will eventually resume instinctive behaviour
what does it help (6)
- Sensors used to display visually or audibly patients internal responses (heart rate, blood pressure, brain waves)
- changes are observed when exposed to different feelings, thoughts or images which increase/decrease activity to control:
- heart rate,
- sexual dysfunctions,
- cerebal palsy.
Behaviour modification is?
- Method of changing behaviour using systematic program using CC, OC or OL
- eg tokens in mental hospital/prison encourage socially accepted behaviour or time out for children
What is chaining?
When complex behaviours are broken down into a serious of behaviours that can be shaped. These sequences can then be chained together.
3 Steps of shaping
- 1 rewards given for behaviours slightly similar to one desired
- 2 then only reward when behaviour is closer to desired behaviour
- 3 gradually expect more before rewarding
Effects of contingency on OC
most effective when the subject can predict consequence