Mechanism of Memory Formation
Card Set Information
Mechanism of Memory Formation
Chp11 psychology neuron amnesia memory
Includes the physical structure involved with memory, memory decline over the lifespan and amnesia
What is the role of the neuron?
What are the roles of dendrites, soma and axon?
info from other neurons
: Controls the metabolism and
of the cell
: A nerve fiber that
carries info away
from the soma. Has terminal buttons at ends that secrete
(a chemical substance that transmits nerve impulses)
What is a synapse and synaptic transmission?
: The process of neurons communicating with other neurons
between two neurons where the terminal buttons of the presynaptic neuron comes into close proximity with the receptor sites on the dendrites of a post synaptic neuron
What are the functions of the hippocampus?
The process of
consolidating of explicit
new memory to other parts of the brain for permanent storage
emotion to memory through the close relationship with amygdala
What are the factors that affect the functioning of the hippocampus?
such as stress, anxiety, depression
such as head injury or stroke
Health related conditions
such as alzheimer's disease
What are the roles of the amygdala?
Memory for emotions shown on faces
The emotions it regulates
the memorability of an event
Has a role in activating the
What is consolidation?
The process by which new memories are transferred into LTM
Describe the consolidation theory
Proposes that memory is permanently stored through a process where there are
physical changes to the neurons
Retrieved memory must be reconsolidated to allow it to be refined, corrected or modified
What conditions are necessary for permanent strage of memory? (Consolidation theory)
: there must be a
physical change to the
: LTM is unlikely to form of process is disrupted due to head injury, level of attention, arousal level due to anxiety)
: Consolidation takes time; the more time neural connections have to strengthen, the less vulnerable they are to disruption or change
Describe long term memory over the life span
are at the
however may require more time to encode and retrieve.
is affected the most-
after middle age.
No significant decline
Describe short term memory over the life span
simple tasks, STM does not deteriorate
Verbal recency memory is most affected by age
Visual recency memory is less likely to be affected by age
Describe working memory over the life span
Elderly people are more likely to perform more
than younger people
on complex working memory tasks
Prefrontal cortex—responsible for working memory—is less active and efficient
What are the reasons to explain memory decline?
Lack of motivation
: losing interest in trying to learn
Loss of confidence in memory
: Less effort in learning and remembering new material
What is amnesia?
The inability to remember due to damage to the brain
eg. injury, disease, stroke, seizures, drugs, alcohol
Difficulty in recalling material learnt
the brain damage
Causes include strokes, brain tumours, surgery and electroconvulsive therapy
What is anterogade amnesia?
inability to encode and store new memories
Able to retrieve memories prior
Often related to damage to temporal lobe and hippocampus
Often accompanied by retrogade amnesia
What is brain trauma?
Damage to the brain
caused by head injuries, disease, seizure, malnutrition, stroke, chemical damage, anoxia (lack of oxygen), surgery
What are neurodegenerative diseases?
in structure , activity and function of
in the brain
What is dementia?
A large group of neurodegenerative diseases that affects
higher mental functions and loss of memory
eg. Alzheimer's disease
Describe Alzheimer's disease
Most common form of dementia
Hippocampus and prefrontal
cortex are affected therefore experiences
Symptoms include mood and personality changes, impaired ability to recall words and names, semantic and procedural memories decline
What are the structural changes involved with Alzheimer's disease?
(protein that form among axon terminals)
with communication between neurons
(build up of protein)- associated with
of brain cells
Brain shrinks when hippocampus loses cells