Biology Final

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aogwaro
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220555
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Biology Final
Updated:
2013-05-22 16:00:37
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biology genetics meiosis transcription
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biology
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  1. What is the difference between a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross?
    A dihybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for two characters and a monohybrid only one.
  2. It was important that Mendel examined not just the F1 generation in his breeding
    experiments, but the F2 generation as well, because

    A) he obtained very few F1 progeny, making statistical analysis difficult.

    B) parental traits that were not observed in the F1 reappeared in the F2.

    C) analysis of the F1 progeny would have allowed him to discover the law of segregation, but not the law of independent assortment.

    D) the dominant phenotypes were visible in the F2 generation, but not in the F1.
    B) parental traits that were not observed in the F1 reappeared in the F2.
  3. The F1 offspring of Mendel's classic pea cross always looked like one of the two parental varieties because

    A) different genes interacted to produce the parental phenotype.
    B) the traits blended together during fertilization.
    C) no genes interacted to produce the parental phenotype.
    D) each allele affected phenotypic expression.
    E) one phenotype was completely dominant over another.
    E) one phenotype was completely dominant over another.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. How many unique gametes could be produced through independent assortment by an
    individual with the genotype AaBbCCDdEE? 




    A) 4
    B) 32
    C) 8
    D) 64
    E) 16
    C) 8
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. A sexually reproducing animal has two unlinked genes, one for head shape (H) and one for
    tail length (T). Its genotype is HhTt. Which of the following genotypes is possible in a
    gamete from this organism assuming no errors in meiosis? 





    A) HT
    B) T
    C) Hh
    D) HhTt

    E) tt
    D) HhTt
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. 6) When crossing an organism that is homozygous recessive for a single trait with a heterozygote, what is the chance of producing an offspring with the homozygous recessive
    phenotype?

    A) 0%
    B) 25%
    C) 50%
    D) 100%
    E) 75%
    If you’re unsure, do the Punnett square: Aa (heterozygote) x aa (homozygote recessive)
    C) 50%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Radish flowers may be red, pink, or white. A cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant yields all-pink offspring. The part of the radish we eat may be oval or long, with long being the dominant characteristic.

    -If true-breeding red long radishes are crossed with true breeding white oval radishes, the F1 will be expected to be which of the following?

    A) Red and oval
    B) Pink and long
    C) Red and long
    D) Pink and oval
    E) White and long
    B) Pink and long
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. In a cross AaBbCc × AaBbCc, what is the probability of producing the genotype AABBCC?

    A) 1/8
    B) 1/32
    C) 1/64
    D) 1/4
    E) 1/16
    C) 1/64
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Radish flowers may be red, pink, or white. A cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant yields all-pink offspring. The part of the radish we eat may be oval or long, with long being the dominant characteristic. The flower color trait in radishes is an example of which of the following?

    A) A multiple allelic system

    B) Sex linkage

    D) Incomplete dominance

    E) Epistasis
    D) Incomplete dominance
  10. The frequency of heterozygosity for the sickle cell anemia allele is unusually high,
    presumably because this reduces the frequency of malaria. Such a relationship is related to
    which of the following?

    A) Mendel's law of independent assortment
    B) Mendel's law of segregation
    C) Darwin's observations of competition
    D) The malarial parasite changing the allele
    E) Darwin's explanation of natural selection
    E) Darwin's explanation of natural selection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Define a gene
    A gene is a segment of DNA that codes for something.
  12. Define an allele
    Alleles are different versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypes.
  13. Define a locus.
    A locus is the physical location of a gene on a chromosome.
  14. Complete Dominance.
    Phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are identical.
  15. Incomplete Dominance
    Phenotype of F1 hybrids is somewhere between the phenotypes of the two parental varieties. (Mixed, e.g. Pink Flowers)
  16. Codominance
    Two dominant alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways.
  17. Overdominance
    Phenotype of F1 hybrids is outside the range observed for parental varieties.
  18. Pleiotropy:
    A single gene affects more than one trait.
  19. Epistasis:
    A gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at another. (e.g. fur pigment expression in mammals may be turned off by a gene, whether it would have been black or brown.)
  20. Males are more often affected by sex-linked traits than females because
    A) males are hemizygous for the X chromosome.
    B) female hormones such as estrogen often compensate for the effects of mutations on the X.
    C) male hormones such as testosterone often alter the effects of mutations on the X chromosome.
    D) X chromosomes in males generally have more mutations than X chromosomes in females.
    E) mutations on the Y chromosome often worsen the effects of X-linked mutations.
    A) males are hemizygous for the X chromosome.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. T/F: Prokaryotic chromosomes have a single origin of replication, whereas eukaryotic
    chromosomes have many.
    True
  22. Suppose you are provided with an actively dividing culture of E. coli bacteria to which
    radioactive thymine has been added. What would happen if a cell replicates once in the
    presence of this radioactive base? 








    a. One of the daughter cells, but not the other, would have radioactive DNA.



    b. Neither of the two daughter cells would be radioactive.



    c. All four bases of the DNA would be radioactive.



    d. Radioactive thymine would pair with nonradioactive guanine.



    e. DNA in both daughter cells would be radioactive.
    e. DNA in both daughter cells would be radioactive.
  23. What determines the nucleotide sequence of the newly synthesized strand during DNA
    replication?



    a. the particular DNA polymerase catalyzing the reaction



    b. the relative amounts of the four nucleoside triphosphates in the cell



    c. the nucleotide sequence of the template strand



    d. the primase used in the reaction



    e. the arrangement of histones in the sugar phosphate backbone
    c. the nucleotide sequence of the template strand

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