Anatomy Eye Test

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Anatomy Eye Test
2013-05-22 00:06:46

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  1. eyelids
    protect eye
  2. tarsal glands
    produce an oily secretion that lubricates eye
  3. conjuctiva
    • membrane that line eyelids and covers outer part of eyeball
    • secrete mucus to lubricate eye
  4. cornea
    • protective layer of the eye
    • anterior most part of the sclera
  5. iris
    • colored part of eye (pigmented diaphragm)
    • contains muscles to open and close the pupil
  6. pupil
    • opening to allow light to reach lens
    • size adjusts with light
    • -smaller: more light
    • -larger: less light
  7. lens
    • major refractory (light bending) structure
    • focuses light into retina
    • shape is changed by ciliary muscle for close focus
    • divides eye into 2 chambers (anterior; posterior)
  8. anterior chamber in lens
    • contains clear watery aqueous humor
    • -provides nutrients to lens and cornea
    • drains through the canal of schlemn
  9. posterior chamber in lens
    • vitreous humor
    • -reinforce eyeball
    • -gel like
  10. lacrimal apparatus (tears)
    • lacrimal gland above lateral end of eye
    • release dilute salt solution (tears) through several small ducts
    • travel to lacrimal canals medially, into lacrimal sac, and finally nasolacrimal duct
    • lacrimal secretion contains antibodies and lysozyme which kills bacteria
    • protects and lubricates the eye
    • -emotional tears "crying" is poorly understood
  11. there are 6 external eye muscles responsible for...
    provide gross eye movements
  12. eyeball is a hollow sphere composed of...
    three tunics
  13. sclera (fibrous tunic of eyeball)
    • thick white connective tissue
    • center is transparent cornea containing nerve endings
    • -can be transplanted without rejection, non vascular
  14. choroid (vascular tunic of eyeball)
    • vascular, brings nutrients to the eye
    • 3 regions
    • -ciliary body where lens is attached
    • -iris pigmented opening
    • -pupil where light enters
    • contains a dark pigment to prevent light from scattering inside the eye
  15. retina (sensory tunic of eyeball)
    • contains photoreceptor cells (rods and cores)
    • -fovea centralis (means "pit")
    • --area of most acute vision
    • --responsible for sharp central vision for reading, watching, driving, and any activity where visual detail is of primary importance
  16. blind spot (optic disk)
    • point where the optic nerve leaves the back of the eyeball
    • lacks photoreceptors
    • overlap of the visual fields and inputs from both eyes to each optic cortex provide for depth perception
  17. vision process
    • light passes through pupil to lens
    • lens focuses light onto retina
    • photoreceptors of the retina create impulses
    • impulse travels up optic nerve to brain
  18. pathway of light through the eye
    cornea > aqueous humor > (through pupil) > aqueous humor > lens > vitreous humor > retina
  19. internal muscles of eye
    • autonomic nervous system
    • ciliary body- muscles that alter lens curvature
    • radial and circular muscles of iris which control pupil size
  20. external muscles of eye
    • rectus and oblique control eye movements
    • convergence, movement of eyes medially to view close objects and moving objects
  21. photopupillary reflex
    sudden exposure to bright light, pupils constrict, prevents damage to photoreceptors
  22. accomadation pupillary reflex
    constriction of pupils to view close objects
  23. conjunctivitis
    inflammation of the conjunctiva, red, irritated eyes caused by bacteria or virus
  24. night blindness
    deterioration of the neural retina, vitamin A deficiency
  25. color blindness
    • lack of all three cones, sex-linked disorder, mostly in males
    • most common lack of red or green receptors
  26. cataracts
    lens hard and opaque as we age, treatment is removal of lens and lens transplant
  27. glaucoma
    increased pressure due to backup of aqueous humor fluid, causes blindness slowly over time
  28. myopia
    • distant objects appear blurred
    • images are focused in front of the retina rather than on it
    • also called short sight or nearsightedness
  29. hyperopia
    • light focused behind the retina instead of directly on it
    • inability to see near objects clearly
    • caused by a shortened eyeball or a misshaped lens
    • also called farsightedness or hypermetropia
  30. astigmatism
    • unequal curvature of one or more refractive surfaces, usually the cornea
    • prevents light rays from focusing clearly at a single point on the retina, resulting in blurred vision
  31. outer ear
    pinna, external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane or eardrum
  32. pinna
    shell shaped outer ear
  33. external acoustic meatus (external audtiory canal)
    • part of outer ear
    • short chamber
    • contains ceruminous glands which secrete earwax
  34. tympanic membrane or eardrum
    • part of outer ear
    • amplifies sound vibrations and transmits vibrations to 3 ossicles (bones): malleus, incus, and stapes
  35. middle ear (tympanic cavity)
    • air filled cavity in the temporal bone
    • two openings (oval and round window)
  36. oval window
    • connecting the middle and inner ear
    • stapes transmits vibrations into the inner ear
  37. round window
    membrane covered opening in the inner wall of the middle ear that compensates for changes in cochlear pressure
  38. pharyngotympanic tube
    • part of middle ear
    • attaches ear to throat
    • normally flat and closed but swallowing or yawning opens it to equalize pressure in ear with atmospheric pressure
  39. tympanic cavity
    • part of middle ear
    • contains the ossicles
  40. osseous
    • inner ear
    • bony chambers with 3 subdivisions¬†
    • function to maintain equilibrium
  41. cochlea
    • part of osseous
    • contains mechanoreceptors
    • organ of Corti which contains sensory "hair" cells
    • measures pressure
  42. vestibule
    • part of osseous
    • responsible for static equilibrium
  43. semicircular canals
    part of osseous
  44. conduction deafness
    • temporary
    • damage of mechanical factors
    • caused by build up of earwax, fusion of ossicles otitis media
    • treatment: hearing aid
  45. sensorineural deafness
    • damage to nervous system
    • damage to cochlear nerve, hair cells in organ of corti
    • -caused by blood clot in auditory cortex of brain, listening to loud noise
  46. otitis media
    • middle ear inflammation in children
    • eardrum bulges, pus, pressure
    • treatment: myringotomy
    • -tiny tube implanted in eardrum allows pus to drain
  47. nose
    • sense of smell
    • olfactory receptor cells have olfactory hairs covered in mucus
    • olfactory filaments are stimulated by scent chemical dissolved in mucus
    • filaments make up the olfactory nerve which carries impulses to olfactory cortex of brain
  48. tongue
    • covered in papillae
    • chemicals dissolve in saliva
    • chemoreceptors in taste buds create impulse
  49. 5 taste sensations of tongue
    • sweet (OH-)
    • sour (H+)
    • bitter (alkaloids)
    • salty (metal ions)
    • umami (delicious in Japanese)
    • -amino acid glutamate
    • beef taste and msg