Anthropology Final Exam

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mctreebark
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220616
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Anthropology Final Exam
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2013-05-21 23:28:23
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anthro
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Anthropology Final Exam
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  1. Define: Political Integration
    where activities are organized and centralized
  2. Bulletpoint 4 types of political organizations
    • Bands
    • Tribes
    • Chiefdoms
    • States
  3. Bulletpoint 5 characteristics of a state
    • Large Pop.
    • Gov.
    • Economy
    • Collect Taxes
    • Draft men
  4. Provide a reason we follow state power
    government protection/food
  5. Define: Segmentary Lineage system
    one type of tribal integration based on kinship
  6. Matching:
    • Crime
    • warfare
    • civil war
    • negotiation
    • mediation
  7. Define: Codified laws
    formal principles for resolving disputes n heterogeneous stratified societies
  8. Define: Capital Punishment
    the legally authorized killing of someone as punishment for a crime
  9. Define: Ordeal
    Seeing if someone is guilty for a crime by exposing them to painful or dangerous tasks to see if they are under supernatural control
  10. Define: adjudication
    Judge makes a decision on a civil dispute
  11. Define: Raiding
    short term use of force organized to realize a limited objective
  12. Define: Universality Law
    all societies have regularized peaceful ways of handling at least certain disputes
  13. Why are some societies more violent than others?
    aggressive sports and desensitization to violence through media and culture
  14. Define: religion
    attitudes or beliefs, supernatural higher beings
  15. Define: Supernatural
    not subject to the laws of nature
  16. Explain Edward Tylors Approach to religion
    religion is organized in peoples states, Animism belief in a soul
  17. Define: animism
    the attribution of a living soul to plants or inanimate objects
  18. Explain Emeal Durkheims approach to religion
    Religion provides community
  19. Matching:
    • anamatism- supernat. force
    • mana-where force goes
    • taboo-
  20. bulletpoint two categories of supernatural beings.
    • gods/spirits
    • ghosts/ancestral beings
  21. 2 characteristics of gods/spirits
    • created themselves and other gods
    • take different forms
  22. Define: monotheism
    belief in one god
  23. Define: polytheism
    many gods
  24. 5 ways we interact with the supernatural
    prayer,physiological experience, simulation, feasts, sacrifices.
  25. define: physiological experience
    doing something to the body and mind
  26. give examples of simulation
    immitation of something voodoo dolls
  27. give one reason for human sacrifice
    please gods, make it rain
  28. define: sorcery
    use of materials or objects, and medicines to invoke supernatural malevolence.
  29. one reason for the belief in witchcraft
    explain events for which the cause is unknown
  30. bulletpoint 4 types of religious practitioners
    • shamans
    • sorcerers/witches
    • mediums
    • priests
  31. define: applied anthropology
    explicitly concerned with making anthropological knowledge useful
  32. what is our first code of ethic
    everything should be done to ensure that their welfare and dignity are protected
  33. bulletpoint the three barriers that hinder change
    • overcoming resistence
    • discovery
    • utilizing local channels of influence
  34. define Cultural resource management (CRM)
    recovering and preserving the archaeological record left by the ancestors of living people.
  35. define: forensic anthropology
    identifying human remains to solve crimes by applying knowledge of physical anthropology.
  36. Define: ethnomedicine
    knowledges of a cultural group how they play a part in their health
  37. bulletpoint the 4 categories used by healers
    • naming process
    • personality of dr.
    • patients expectations
    • curing techniques
  38. Why is AIDS and HIV considered a social issue?
    because it is a preventable disease. knowledge and precaution can greatly reduce the issue
  39. bulletpoint 3 global social issues
    • AIDS
    • under nutrition
    • women's rights
  40. define: social problem
    social issues that either directly or indirectly affect a person or many members of a society
  41. bulletpoint two forms of violence
    • physical
    • psychological
  42. provide one reason for wife or women abuse.
    to continue control by men
  43. provide one reason for high crime rates
    wage gap
  44. one reason for war
    fear of loss of resources
  45. define: state terrorism
    government killing their own
  46. what are universal human rights
    access to food, clean water, shelter, safety
  47. define: cultural relativism
    the attitude that a society's customs and ideas should be viewed within the context of that society's problem/opportunities.

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