The police make the written laws of the penal code come to life for the public. police - invoked justice on the streets, often involving the use of force. This is referred to as
If police either overlook or overemphasize certain types of crimes they can effectively change the criminal law. For example, overlook underage drinking in a college town. They are ___________ in that town.
Discretionary ________ making is one of the unavoidable realities of police work.
JUSTICE AS ___________, is when justice prevails when people under similar circumstances are treated in an equal and fair manner before the law.
Justice as ___________ mean justice prevails when people receive from the law what they deserve to receive
Definition of a __________ is that it is an occupation that involves the practioner in academic experience of substantial sophistication
Professions practice self-regulation and self disciplining
The ___________ problem involved the supposedly noble cause of attempting to get the job done. Another name for it is the "CSI effect"
The Dirty Harry problem has become the most difficult type of misconduct to deter in contemporary American policing.
In the bible when Abrahm was commanded by God to offer up his son as a burnt offerring. Abraham's willingness to give up his son simply because God said so made it good. The moral authority of the sacrifice lay in Abraham's obedience, no in what it brought about. Abrahams good intentions made the act moral, not its possible consequences. This is the earliest example of ___________
In the modern world, the father of ethical formalism is:
Kant's ethic is what philosophers call a _____________perspective, a term that indicates that a person has a duty to be____________
Kant maintains that the individual can only be held accountable for that over which he or she has immediate control, and in our conduct the only thing we absolutely control is our______________
__________ is our defining trait- it is what makes us human.
A _______ approach ( the best known modern version of which is call utilitarianism) involves attempting to calculate the impact upon others of one's actions at any given moment.
The idea that the media present unrealistic images to the public of the police, how they operate, and what they are capable of accomplishing is the _____ effect
Judgments of moral obligation; a term used for ethical systems that identify a person's intentions as the center of moral gravity is:
_____________ and the English Parliament created the first English police force in 1829 called the Metropolitan Police of London
Sir Robert Peel
During the _______ era, police organizations are tied to machine politics. Officers are hired and retained due to their loyalty to local politicos. Corruption is rampant.
During the ______ era, paramilitaristic policing is developed. Civil service is created and controls hiring. Police academies are established.
During the _________ era, in 1980 community oriented policing drives the creation of a new philosophy involving proactive policing, collegial problem solving.
Police professionals must possess the following:
knowledge, education, regulation, discipline, problem solving, ethics
Muir discusses police professionalism from a different perspective.Muir's analysis is that there are individual officers who behave as professionals and those who do not. Muir brings us to consider the vehavioro f police officers as _______________
Muir suggests that to operate as true professionals indivual officers must possess:
_______ and ______________
passion, and perspective
Muir believes officers must possess "integrated passion" to use coercive power. __________ involves obtaining desired behavior from others by using threats to harm something of value to them. (threaten to arrest them)
Muir believes that professionals need to have a certain perspective on life that he calls the "tragic perspective". The key to being a professional is the capacity to understand how tragedy explains a great deal about deviant human behavior.
The three major functions of the police, which are admittedly vague adn often in conflict with each other are to:
1. Enforce the law
2. Maintain order
3. Provide services to the community.
Jerome Skolnick, a scholar on policing, wrote that the police are forever looking for "symbolic assailants" or people who might pose a threat. (true or false)