Soc Psych Final II

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daintychinadoll
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220623
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Soc Psych Final II
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2013-05-22 00:09:46
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Soc Psych Final II
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Soc Psych Final II
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  1. What is a group?
    • A set of individuals who share
    • Direct interactions with each other over a period of time
    • Joint membership in social category
    • Shared common goal, fate or identity
  2. Collective
    People engaged in common activities but minimal direct interaction
  3. Why do we join groups?
    Need to belong, define ourselves, protection, others to accomplish goal
  4. Groups described in terms of
    Roles, Norms, cohesiveness
  5. Group development
    Forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning
  6. Interpersonal cohesiveness
    Enjoyment of one another's company
  7. Task cohesiveness
    Commitment to the group's task
  8. Triplett
    Cyclists performed better when racing
  9. Zajonc
    • Extended Triplett
    • People have trouble when being watched if the tasks were novel
  10. Zajonc Solution
    • Increased arousal
    • Dominant response
  11. Social facilitation
    The presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs difficult
  12. Mere presence theory
    The presence of others is enough to produce social facilitation
  13. Evaluation apprehension theory
    Presence of others produce social facilitation only if they evaluate you
  14. Distraction conflict theory
    The presence of others produce social facilitation only when they distract you from task
  15. Social loafing
    A group produced reduction in individual output on easy tasks where contributions are pooled
  16. Free-rider effect
    • Our contribution is not essential
    • Low input, high output
  17. Sucker effect
    • Willing to do your share but not more
    • Minimum requirement
  18. When our contributions are identified
    • Raises arousal
    • Results in social facilitation
  19. When our contributions cannot be identified
    • Decreased arousal
    • Results in social loafing
  20. When is social loafing less likely
    • Individual performance is evaluated
    • Task is meaningful
    • Performers believe their own efforts are needed for success
    • Punishment for poor performance
    • Small group
    • Cohesive group: membership is valuable and members like each other
  21. Deindividuation
    The loss of a person's individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against deviant behavior
  22. Groupthink
    A group decision making style characterized by an excessive tendency among group members to seek agreement
  23. Symptoms of groupthink
    • Overestimating right and might
    • Members become closed-minded
    • Pressures toward uniformity
  24. Reducing groupthink
    • Consult with outsiders
    • Leader should encourage criticism
    • Be impartial
    • Encourage critical evaluation
  25. Group polarization
    Exaggeration through group discussion on initial tendencies in the thinking of group mmbers
  26. Process loss
    The reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group processes (motivation, coordination)
  27. Factors that reduce effectiveness of brainstorming
    • Production blocking: wait for turn
    • Free riding: less motivation to work
    • Evaluation apprehension: hesitant
    • Performance matching: work only as hard as see others working
  28. Escalation effects
    Group more likely to escalate commitment even if failing
  29. Social dilemmas
    Situations in which a self interested choice by everyone creates the worst outcome for everyone
  30. Resource dilemma
    • Social dilemmas concerning how two or more people share a limited resource
    • Commons dilemma: does not replenish when taken
    • Public goods dilemma: public broadcasting, blood donation
  31. Prisoner's dilemma
    Tit for tat
  32. Integrative agreement
    • Negotiated resolution where all parties obtain outcomes that are superior to a 50-50 split
    • Sisters orange, juice, peel

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