Final Exam

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  1. What did Mathias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann accomplish?
    The Cell Theory
  2. If two species are in the same class, then how are the species related and differ?
    • The two species are also in the same phylum and kingdom, but they differ in the order, family, and species.
    • (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, and species)
  3. What are some of the similarities between a fungus, tree, and human?
    They are all composed of cells with nuclei.
  4. What four elements make up 96% of living matter?
    • carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
    • CHON
  5. What does the words "trace element" mean?
    The element is required in small amounts.
  6. What is the difference between carbon 12 and carbon 14?
    In carbon 14, there are two more neutrons than in carbon 12.
  7. What is true about neon with the atomic number of 10?
    Neon will have 8 electrons in outer shell, and neon is stable and non-reactive.
  8. What are some properties of water?
    All are properties related to hydrogen bonding, and water has a greater surface tension than most liquids.
  9. How does the formation of ice during colder temperatures helps to temper the seasonal transition to winter?
    The formation of hydrogen bonds release heat.
  10. What is a buffer and how does it control pH?
    It releases H+ ions in basic solutions.
  11. What is organic chemistry?
    The study of carbon compounds.
  12. ?????????????????
    Identify a functional group.
    carboxyl & amine

    structure: isomer
  13. What molecule is the most abundant in a typical cell?
  14. What is the function of carbohydrates in animals?
    Energy storage molecule
  15. What is a saturated fatty acid?
    The have a higher ratio of hydrogen to carbon than unsaturated.
  16. What are the four bases in DNA and how they differ from RNA.
    DNA does not have uracil.
  17. What is the first and second law of thermodynamics states?
    Entropy of the universe is constantly increasing.
  18. What is the most randomized form of energy?
  19. What does a catalyst do to the rate of a chemical reaction?
    A catalyst speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.
  20. What is the function of the chloroplast?
    Chief site of cellular respiration.
  21. What are the layers of the cell wall from outside to the plasma membrane?
    middle, primary, secondary
  22. What is the function of ribosomes and what does a large group of them indicate?
  23. What are the membrane structures that function in ATP?
    carbohydrates, peripheral proteins, integral proteins, and cholesterol
  24. What is a membrane potential?
    The voltage across the cell membrane.
  25. What are the characteristics of molecules that pass through the a cell membrane easily?
    small and hydrophobic
  26. What is the most direct source of energy that converts ADP to ATP in chemiosmotic phosphorylation?
    The energy released from diffusion of protons through ATP synthase.
  27. What are the final products of the Krebs Cycle?
    FADH2 & NADH
  28. What is the function of antennae pigment?
    To harvest photons and transfer light energy to chlorophyll.
  29. What are the two products of the light reaction?
  30. Why are C4 plants able to photosynthesize with no photorespiration?
    They conserve water more efficiently.
  31. What is the major difference between cytokinesis in plants and animals?
    A cell plate in plants and a cleavage furrow in animals.
  32. Where is the restriction point in the cell cycle?
    G1 Phase
  33. What is a karyotype?
    organization of chromosomes of cell in relation to size, number, and type
  34. Describe a female somatic cell?
    22 autosomes, X
  35. What is a characteristic of Huntington's disease?
    age 30-40
  36. F2 generation of a dihybrid cross ratio?
  37. What is a test cross?
    a genetic cross between an individual of unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive
  38. What is a locus?
  39. What determines the frequency of crossing over?
    distance between two genes

    closer the less likely to separate
  40. What is the sex chromosomal makeup of a grasshopper?
  41. All prokaryotes have?
  42. Protists are classified by?
  43. What were chloroplast and mitochondria descendants of?
    photosynthetic prokaryotes
  44. What makes arthropods unique among invertebrates?
    jointed appendages
  45. What can invert it's stomach through their mouth to feed?
    Asteroidea (Sea Star)
  46. What are the characteristics of the cnidarians?
    radial symmetry and no psuedocoelum
  47. Characteristics of annelids?
    closed circulatory system, true segmented
  48. Characteristics of Echinodermata?
    radial symmetry
  49. Characteristics of chordate?
    hollow dorsal nerve cord
  50. What animal group did not develop terrestrial life forms?
  51. Humans and apes differ at the?
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Final Exam
2013-05-22 10:54:11
College Biology n2013

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