The digestive system part 1

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Wesleypjones
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220684
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The digestive system part 1
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2013-05-22 12:16:33
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The digestive system part 1
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  1. Gastrointestinal tract or alimentary canal
    is a continuous tube that extends from the mouth to the anus through the thoracic and abdominal pelvic cavities.  Organs of the GI include include the mouth, most of the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines. its length is 5-7 meters
  2. the accessory digestive organs
    teeth, tongue, saliva, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
  3. ingestion
    taking food in
  4. secretion
    release of water, acid, buffers and enzymes into the lumen of the GI tract
  5. mixing and propulsion
    churning and propulsion through the GI tract
  6. digestion
    mechanical and chemical break down of food
  7. defecation
    the elimination of feces from the GI tract
  8. absorption
    passage of digested products from the GI tract into the blood and lymph
  9. motility
    the capability of the GI tract to mix and move material along its length
  10. enteric nervous system
    the brain of the gut.  it consists of 100 million neurons that extend from the esophagus to the anus. They are arranged into two plexus
  11. myentric plexus
    is located between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis. It mainly controls GI tract motility
  12. mechanical digestion
    the teeth cut and grind food before it is swallowed, and then smooth muscles of the stomach and small intestine churn the food.  As a result food molecules become dissolved and throughly mixed with digestive enzymes.
  13. chemical digestion
    the large carbohydrate, lipid, protein and nucleic acid molecules in food are split into smaller molecules by hydrolysis.  Vitamins ions, cholesterol and water can be directly absorbed without this.
  14. Mucosa
    the inner lining of the Gi tract is a mucous membrane.  It is composed of three layers
  15. Mucosa: epithelium
    in direct contact with the contents of the Gi tract
  16. enteroendocrine cells
    found in the epithelium of the mucosa they secrete hormones into the lumen
  17. mucosa: lumina propria
    is areolar connective tissue containing many blood and lymphatic cells, which are routes by which nutrients absorbed into the GI tract reach other tissues of the body
  18. mucosa associated lymphatic tissues (MALT)
    these lymphatic nodules contain immune system cells that protect against disease.  Found in lamina propria layer
  19. Mucosa: muscularis mucosae
    A thin layer of smooth muscle fibers found in the mucosa, throws the mucous membrane of the stomach and smooth intestine into many small folds, which increase the surface area for digestion and absorption
  20. Submucosa
    consists of areolar connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis.  It contains many blood and lymphatic vessels that receive absorbed food molecules.
  21. submucosa plexus
    an extensive layer of neurons found in the submucosa
  22. muscularis
    found in the mouth, pharynx and esophagus contain skeletal muscle that produces voluntary swallowing. the sphincter at the end is also voluntary. The rest of the tract has smooth muscle tissue found in two layers.
  23. myenteric plexus
    found between two layers of smooth muscle tissue in the muscularis is this neuron plexus
  24. serosa
    the portions of the GI tract that are suspended in the abdominal pelvic cavity have this superficial layer.  It is a serous membrane.  It is also called the visceral peritoneum because it forms a portion of the peritoneum.
  25. adventitia
    the esophagus lacks a serosa and instead only has a single layer of areolar connective tissue called this that forms the superficial layer of this organ
  26. submucosal plexus
    these neurons supply the secretory cells of the mucosal epithelium, controlling the secretions of the organs of the GI tract.
  27. peritoneum
    is the largest serous membrane of the body
  28. parietal peritoneum
    lines the wall of the abdominal cavity
  29. visceral peritoneum
    covers some of the organs in the cavity and is their serosa
  30. Peritoneal cavity
    the slim space containing lubricating serous fluid that is between the parietal and visceral portions of the peritoneum.
  31. retroperitoneal
    the organs that lie on the posterior abdominal wall and are covered only anteriorly by peritoneum.  They are not in the peritoneal cavity.  They include kidneys, ascending and descending colons of the large intestine, duodenum of the small intestine and pancreas
  32. Peritoneal folds: greater omentum
    the largest peritoneal fold, drapes oves the transverse colon and coils of the small intestine like a fatty apron.  It is a double sheet that folds back on its self, giving it a total of four layers
  33. peritoneal folds: falciform ligament
    attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm.  The liver is the only digestive organ attached to the abdominal wall
  34. peritoneal folds: lesser omentum
    arises as an anterior fold in the serosa of the stomach and duodenum and it suspends the stomach and duodenum from the liver.  It contains the hepatic portal vein to the liver
  35. Peritoneal folds: mesentry
    a fan shaped fold of the peritoneum.  It binds the jejunum and ileum of the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall.  It extends from the posterior abdominal wall to wrap around the small intestine and then returns to its origin.
  36. Peritoneal folds: mesocolon
    two separate folds of peritoneum that bind the transverse colon and sigmoid colon of the large intestine to the posterior abdominal wall. Together with the mesentry they hold the intestines loosely in place
  37. mouth or oral cavity
    is formed by the cheeks, hard and soft palates and tongue

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