The digestive system part 2

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The digestive system part 2
2013-05-22 13:44:01
digestive system part

The digestive system part 2
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  1. cheeks
    form the internal walls of the oral cavity.  They are covered internally by a mucous membrane, Buccinator muscles and connective tissue lie between the skin and mucous membranes of the cheeks
  2. lips or labia
    are fleshy folds surrounding the opening of the mouth. They contain orbicularis oris muscle and are covered internally by a mucous membrane
  3. oral vestibule
    of the oral cavity is a space bounded externally by the cheeks and lips and internally by the gums and teeth
  4. hard palate
    the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth. It is formed by maxillae and palatine bones and is covered by a mucous membrane; it forms a bony partition between the oral and nasal cavities
  5. soft palate
    forms the posterior portion of the roof of the mouth. It is an arch shaped muscular partition between the oropharynx and nasopharynx that is lined with mucous membrane
  6. uvula
    hanging from the free border of the soft palate is a conical muscular process called the uvula.  During swallowing it and the soft palate are drawn superiorly, closing off the nasopharynx and preventing swallowing foods and liquids from entering the nasal cavity.
  7. salivary glands
    is a gland that releases a secretion called saliva into the oral cavity.  When food enters the mouth secretion of saliva increases, and it lubricates, dissolves and begins the chemical break down of the food
  8. parotid glands
    are located inferior and anterior to the ears, between the skin and the masseter muscle. each secretes saliva into the oral cavity via a parotid duct that pierces the buccinator muscle to open into the vestibule opposite the second upper molar teeth
  9. submandibular glands
    are found in the floor of the mouth, they are medial and partly inferior to the body of the mandible
  10. submandibular ducts
    run under the mucosa on either side of the midline of the floor of the mouth and enter the oral cavity proper lateral to the lingual frenulum
  11. sublingual glands
    are beneath the tongue and superior to the submandibular glands
  12. lesser sublingual ducts
    open into the floor of the mouth in the oral cavity proper
  13. saliva
    99.5% water and 0.5% solutes.  Not all glands secrete the same ingredients.  The main ones are sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate and phosphate.
  14. salivary amylase
    a digestive enzyme that acts on starch
  15. salivation
    the secretion of saliva that is controlled by the ANS
  16. Tongue
    an accessory digestive organ composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane.  It forms the floor of the oral cavity.
  17. extrinsic muscle
    originate outside the tongue (attach to bones in the area) and insert into connective tissues in the tongue.  They move the tongue from side to side and in and out to maneuver food.
  18. intrinsic muscle
    originate in the tongue.  They alter the shape and size of the tongue for speech and swallowing
  19. lingual frenulum
    a fold of mucous membrane in the midline of the undersurface of the tongue. it is attached to the floor of the mouth and aids in limiting the movement of the tongue posteriorly
  20. papillae
    contain receptors for touch and increase friction between the tongue and food, making it easier for the tongue to move food in the oral cavity.
  21. lingual glands
    in the lamina propria of the tongue secrete both mucus and a watery serous fluid that contains the enzyme lingual lipase, which acts on triglycerids