The digestive system part 5

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The digestive system part 5
2013-05-22 14:56:37
digestive system part

The digestive system part 5
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  1. mixing waves of the stomach
    gentle rippling peristaltic movements happen several minutes after food enters the stomach. They pass over the stomach every 15-25 seconds. They macerate food, mix it with secretions of the gastric glands and reduce it to a soupy liquid called chyme
  2. gastric emptying
    a phenomenon where food reaches the pylorus, where each mixing wave periodically forces about 3ml of chyme into the duodenum through the pyloric sphincter.
  3. proton pumps
    powered by H+/K+ ATPases actively transport H+ into the lumen while bringing potassium ions into the cell.
  4. pepsin
    the only protein digesting enzyme in the stomach which is secreted by chief cells
  5. gastric lipase
    it splits the short chained triglycerids in fat molecules into fatty acids and monoglycerides.
  6. pancreas
    a retroperitoneal gland.  it lies posterior to the greater curvature of the stomach.
  7. head of pancreas
    is the extended portion of the organ near the curve of the duodenum
  8. body
    superior to and to the left of the head are the central body and tapering tail
  9. Pancreatic duct
    pancreatic juices are secreted into this.  It is the larger of two.  it joins the common bile duct from the liver and gallbladder and enters the duodenum as a dilated common duct called hepatopancreatic ampulla
  10. hepatopancreatic ampulla
    a dilated common duct that enters the duodenum from the liver gallbladder and pancreas
  11. sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla
    the passage of pancreatic juices and bile through the hepatopancreatic ampulla into the small intestine is regulated by a mass of smooth muscle tissue called this
  12. accessory duct or duct of santorini
    leads from the pancreas and empties into the duodenum superior to the hepatopancreatic ampulla
  13. acini
    clusters of glandular epithelial cells in the pancreas that constitute the exocrine portion of the organ
  14. pancreatic juice
    the cells within acini secrete a mixture of fluid and digestive enzymes
  15. pancreatic islets
    clusters of glandular epithelial cells that form the endocrine portion of the pancreas.  These cells secrete hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide
  16. pancreatic amylase
    starch digesting enzyme in the pancreas
  17. trypsin, chymotyrpsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase
    protein digesting enzymes in the pancreas
  18. pancreatic lipase
    the principal triglyceride digesting enzyme in adults
  19. ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease
    nucleic acid digesting enzymes