is the heaviest gland of the body. It is second only to the skin in size. It is inferior to the diaphragm a
is a pear shaped sack that is located in a depression of the posterior surface of the liver. it is long and hangs from the anterior inferior margin of the liver
separates the two lobes of the liver. It is a fold of mesentry and suspends the liver in the abdominal cavity. It extends from the diaphragm.
are the major functional cell of the liver and perform a wide array of metabolic, secretory and endocrine functions. specialized epithelial cells.
these are small ducts between hepatocytes that collect bile produced by the hepatocytes.
from the bile canaliculi bile passes into these
right and left hepatic ducts
the bile ducts merge and eventually form these which unit and exit the liver as the common hepatic duct
the common hepatic duct joins this which comes from the gall bladder
common bile duct
cystic duct and common hepatic duct join to form this and flows into the small intestine to participate in digestion
these are highly permeable blood capillaries between rows of hepatocytes that receive oxygenated blood from branches of the hepatic artery and nutrients rich deoxygenated blood from the hepatic portal vein
hepatic sinusoids converge and deliver blood into this
according to this each lode is shaped like a hexagon. It is the functional unit of the liver. At its centre is the central vein and radiating from it are rows of hepatocytes and hepatic sinusoids
this model emphasizes the exocrine function of the liver, that is, bile secretion
the preferred structural and functional unit of the liver
the principal liver bile pigment. it is secreted in the bile and is broken down in the intestine
the break down of large lipid globules into a suspension of small lipid globules. Bile salts play a role in this
where most digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs
the shortest region of the small intestine, is retroperitoneal. It starts at the pyloric sphincter of the stomach and extends until it merges with the jejunum
is about 1m long and extends to the ileum. The name means empty which is how it is found at death.
2m long and joins the large intestine at a smooth muscle sphincter called the ileocal sphincter
digest and absorb nutrients in the small intestine chyme.
cells lining the crevices form this and secrete intestinal juices
contained in the intestinal glands. They secrete lysozyme, a bactericidal enzyme, and are capable of phagocytosis.
groups of lymphatic nodules are also present in the ileum
found in the submucosa of the small intestine. These secret an alkaline mucous that helps neutralize gastric acid in the chyme
are folds of mucosa and submucosa membrane. These permanent ridges enhance absorption by increasing surface area and causing the chyme to spiral, rather than move in a straight line as it passes through the small intestine
villi or villus
finger like projections of the mucosa. The large number of these vastly increases the surface area of the epithelium available for absorbtion and digestion and gives the intestinal mucosa a velvety appearance