The digestive system part 6

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Wesleypjones
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220706
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The digestive system part 6
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2013-05-22 16:51:05
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digestive system part
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The digestive system part 6
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  1. liver
    is the heaviest gland of the body.  It is second only to the skin in size.  It is inferior to the diaphragm a
  2. gallbladder
    is a pear shaped sack that is located in a depression of the posterior surface of the liver. it is long and hangs from the anterior inferior margin of the liver
  3. falciform ligament
    separates the two lobes of the liver.  It is a fold of mesentry and suspends the liver in the abdominal cavity.  It extends from the diaphragm.
  4. hepatocytes
    are the major functional cell of the liver and perform a wide array of metabolic, secretory and endocrine functions. specialized epithelial cells.
  5. Bile canaliculi
    these are small ducts between hepatocytes that collect bile produced by the hepatocytes.
  6. bile ducts
    from the bile canaliculi bile passes into these
  7. right and left hepatic ducts
    the bile ducts merge and eventually form these which unit and exit the liver as the common hepatic duct
  8. cystic duct
    the common hepatic duct joins this which comes from the gall bladder
  9. common bile duct
    cystic duct and common hepatic duct join to form this and flows into the small intestine to participate in digestion
  10. Hepatic sinusoids
    these are highly permeable blood capillaries between rows of hepatocytes that receive oxygenated blood from branches of the hepatic artery and nutrients rich deoxygenated blood from the hepatic portal vein
  11. central vein
    hepatic sinusoids converge and deliver blood into this
  12. hepatic lobules
    according to this each lode is shaped like a hexagon.  It is the functional unit of the liver.  At its centre is the central vein and radiating from it are rows of hepatocytes and hepatic sinusoids
  13. portal lobule
    this model emphasizes the exocrine function of the liver, that is, bile secretion
  14. hepatic acinus
    the preferred structural and functional unit of the liver
  15. bilirubin
    the principal liver bile pigment.  it is secreted in the bile and is broken down in the intestine
  16. emulsification
    the break down of large lipid globules into a suspension of small lipid globules. Bile salts play a role in this
  17. small intestine
    where most digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs
  18. duodenum
    the shortest region of the small intestine, is retroperitoneal. It starts at the pyloric sphincter of the stomach and extends until it merges with the jejunum
  19. jejunum
    is about 1m long and extends to the ileum.  The name means empty which is how it is found at death.
  20. ileum
    2m long and joins the large intestine at a smooth muscle sphincter called the ileocal sphincter
  21. absorptive cells
    digest and absorb nutrients in the small intestine chyme.
  22. globlet cells
    secrete mucous
  23. intestinal glands
    cells lining the crevices form this and secrete intestinal juices
  24. paneth cells
    contained in the intestinal glands. They secrete lysozyme, a bactericidal enzyme, and are capable of phagocytosis.
  25. hormones secreted by intestinal glands
    secreting, cholecystokinin, glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide
  26. solitary lymphatic nodules
    most numerous in the distal part of the ileum
  27. aggregated lymphatic follicles
    groups of lymphatic nodules are also present in the ileum
  28. duodenal glands
    found in the submucosa of the small intestine. These secret an alkaline mucous that helps neutralize gastric acid in the chyme
  29. circular folds
    are folds of mucosa and submucosa membrane. These permanent ridges enhance absorption by increasing surface area and causing the chyme to spiral, rather than move in a straight line as it passes through the small intestine
  30. villi or villus
    finger like projections of the mucosa.  The large number of these vastly increases the surface area of the epithelium available for absorbtion and digestion and gives the intestinal mucosa a velvety appearance

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