The digestive system part 9

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Wesleypjones
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220724
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The digestive system part 9
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2013-05-22 19:29:35
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The digestive system part 9
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  1. Three phases of digestion: 1. cephalic phase
    the smell, sight, thought or initial taste of food activates neural centres in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and brain stem. which stimulate salivation. The purpose is to prepare the mouth and stomach for food
  2. Three phases of digestion: 2. gastric phase
    once food reaches the stomach. Neural and hormonal mechanisms regulate this phase of digestion to promote gastric secretion and gastric motility
  3. neural regulation of gastric phase
    food of any kind distends the stomach and stimulates stretch receptors in its walls, Chemoreceptors monitor the pH of the stomach chyme. When food enters and distends the walls or lowers the pH level these two receptors are initiated.
  4. hormonal regulation of gastric phase
    gastric secretion during the gastric phase is also regulated by the hormone gastrin.
  5. G-cells
    Gastrin is released from these cells of the gastric glands in response to several stimuli.  Distension, partially digested proteins, High pH, caffeine, and Acetycholine released by parasymphatic neurons.
  6. Three phases of digestion: phase 3 intestinal phase
    begins once food enters the small intestine reflexes initiated during this phase have an inhibitory effect that slow the exit of chyme from the stomach preventing the duodenum from being overloaded
  7. neural regulation of intestinal phase
    distension of the duodenum by the presence of chyme causes the enterogastric reflex. Stretch in the duodenum wall cause neuroceptors to send nerve impulses to the medulla oblongata. As a result gastric motility is inhibited and there is an increase in the contraction of the pyloric sphincter
  8. hormonal regulation of intestinal phase
    mediated by two major hormones. Cholecystokinin and secretin
  9. dental caries
    or tooth decay involves a gradual demineralization of the enamel and dentin.  If untreated, microorganisms may invade the pulp, causing inflammation and infection, with subsequent death of the pulp leading to a root canal
  10. peridontal disease
    is a collective term for a variety of conditions characterized by inflammation and degeneration of the gingivae, alveolar bone, peridontal ligament and cementum
  11. peptic ulcer disease
    a crater like lesion in a membrane, ulcers that develop in areas of the GI tract exposed to acidic gastric juice are called these.  The most common complication is bleeding.
  12. diverticulitis
    an inflammation characterized by pain, either constipation or increased frequency of defecation, nausea, vomiting and low grade fever low fiber contribute to its development
  13. colorectal cancer
    an inherited predisposition contributes to acquiring this. Maybe caused by alcohol intake and diets high in animal fat and protein. Signs include, diarrhea, constipation, cramping, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding
  14. hepatitis
    is an inflammation of the liver that can be caused by viruses, drugs and chemicals, including alcohol
  15. cirrhosis
    distorted or scarred liver as a result of chronic inflammation due to hepatitis, chemicals that destroy hepatocytes, parasites that infect the liver or alcoholism. hepatocytes are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue.  Symptoms include jaundice, , edema in the legs, uncontrolled bleeding and increased sensitivity to drugs.
  16. colitis
    inflammation of the mucosa of the colon and rectum in which absorption of water and salts is reduced, producing watery, bloody feces.
  17. colostomy
    the diversion of feces through an opening in the colon, creating a surgical stoma that is made in the exterior of the abdominal wall.  This opening serves as a substitute anus
  18. inflammatory bowl disease
    inflammation of the GI tract in two forms crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  19. irritable bowel syndrome
    disease of the entire GI tract in which a person reacts to stress by developing symptoms associated with alternating patterns of diarrhea and constipation

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