A & P Skeletal System

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emcadeho
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220823
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A & P Skeletal System
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2013-05-23 12:37:40
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skeletal system bones joints
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skeletal system
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  1. 4 parts of skeletal system
    • 1. Bones
    • 2. Joints
    • 3. Cartilages
    • 4. Ligaments
  2. 2 Divisions of skeleton
    • 1. Axial - Core
    • 2. Appendicular - Appendages
  3. Functions of bones
    • 1. Support
    • 2. Protection
    • 3. Movement
    • 4. Storage of minerals and fats
    • 5. Blood Cell Formation
  4. How many bones in the body?
    206
  5. 2 Types of bones
    • 1. Compact - Homogeneous
    • 2. Spongy
    •      - small needle-like pieces
    •      - many open spaces
  6. 4 classifications of bones
    • 1. Long bone
    • 2. Short bone
    • 3. Flat bone
    • 4. Irregular bone
  7. Describe long bone and example
    • - longer than wide
    • - shaft with heads at both ends
    • - contain mostly compact bone
    • - example...femur, humerus
  8. Describe short bone with example
    • - cube-shaped
    • - contain mostly spongy bone
    • - example...carpals, tarsals
  9. Describe flat bone with example.
    • - thin and flattened
    • - usually curved
    • - thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone
    • - example...skull, ribs, sternum, clavical
  10. Describe irregular bone with example.
    • - irregular shape
    • - do not fit into other bone class
    • - example...vertebrae, hip
  11. Diaphysis
    • The shaft of the bone.
    • Composed of compact bone.
  12. Epiphysis
    • Ends of the bone.
    • Mostly spongy bone.
  13. Articular cartilage
    • covers the external surface of the epiphyses.
    • decreases friction at joint surface.
    • also provides protection and support.
  14. Epephyseal plates
    • Allow for growth of long bone during childhood.
    • New cartilage is continuously formed.
    • Older cartilage becomes ossified.
    •        Cartilage is broken down.
    •        Bone replaces cartilage.
  15. 3 types of bone cells.
    • 1. Osteocytes
    • 2. Osteoblasts
    • 3. Osteoclasts
  16. Osteocytes
    mature bone cells
  17. Osteoblasts
    bone-forming cells
  18. Osteoclasts
    • Bone-destroying cells.
    • Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium.
  19. Bone fracture
    A break in a bone.
  20. 2 Types of bone fractures.
    1. Closed (simple) fracture - does not penetrate the skin.

    2. Open (Compound) fracture - penetrates the skin.
  21. Comminuted fracture
    Bone breaks into many pieces.
  22. Compression fracture
    Bone is crushed.
  23. Depressed fracture
    Broken bone portion is pressed inward.
  24. Impacted fracture
    Broken bone ends are forced into each other.
  25. Spiral fracture
    • Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone.
    • Common in sports.
  26. Greenstick fracture
    • Bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks.
    • Mostly happens to small children
  27. Hyoid bone
    • Located in midneck region.
    • Only bone that does not articulate with another bone.
    • Serves as a moveable base for the tongue.
  28. How many bones in the vertebrae? Regions?
    • 33 bones
    • 5 regions
  29. What are the 5 regions of the spine?
    • 1. Cervical region - 7 vertebrae
    • 2. Thoracic region - 12 vertebrae
    • 3. Lumbar region - 5 vertebrae
    • 4. Sacrum region - 5 fused vertebrae
    • 5. Coccyx region - 4 fused vertebrae
  30. The vertebrae is seperated by what?
    intervertebral discs
  31. The first cervical vertebrae is called?
    atlas
  32. The second cervical vertebrae is called?
    axis
  33. Bones in the bony thorax
    • Sternum
    • Ribs
  34. Sternum
    Flat bone located between the ribs.
  35. ribs
    • flat bones
    • the first 7 are true ribs attached to the sternum
    • 8 - 12 ribs are called false ribs, not attached to sternum
  36. Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
    • Includes clavical and scapula
    • allows upper limbs to have free movement
  37. Clavical
    Also called the collarbone, flat bone
  38. Scapula
    Also called the shoulder blade, flat bone

    • Bony landmark - spine on scapula
    •        Above the spine, muscles are called superior
    •        Below the spine, muscles are called inferior
  39. Humerus
    • Long bone
    • Located from shoulder to elbow
  40. Ulna
    • Forearm
    • Pinky side of arm
    • Medial in anatomical position
  41. Radius
    • Forearm
    • Thumb side
    • Lateral in anatomical position
  42. Bones located in the hand.
    • Carpals - wrist
    • Metacarpals - hand
    • Phalanges - fingers
  43. Carpals
    • 1. Scaphoid - snuff box
    • 2. Hamate - vibration break
  44. Hip bones (Pelvis bones)
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubic bone
  45. Total weight of upper body rests on what?
    Pelvis
  46. Pelvis bones protect what organs?
    • Reproductive organs
    • Urinary bladder
    • Part of the large intestine
  47. Femur
    • thigh bone
    • long bone
    • head - ball at the end
    • neck - connects head to bone
  48. What is the longest, largest, and strongest bone?
    Femur
  49. bones from knee to ankle
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
  50. Tibia
    • shin
    • larger bone
    • medial
  51. Fibula
    • smaller bone in lower leg
    • on the outside
    • does not bear weight
  52. Bones located in the foot
    • Tarsals - ankle
    • Metatarsals - foot
    • Phalanges - toes

  53. Name right foot bones
    • A. Calcaneus
    • B. Talus
    • C. Cuboid
    • D. Navicular
    • E. 3rd cuneiform
    • F. 2nd cuneiform
    • G. 1st cueiform
  54. Three strong arches of foot
    • 2 longitudinal - medial and lateral
    • 1 transverse
  55. Functions of joints
    • Holds bones together
    • Allows mobility
  56. Gliding joint
    • zero axis of rotation
    • example...bones of vertebrae
  57. Hinge joints
    • 1 axis of rotation
    • example...elbow and knee
  58. Pivot joints
    • 1 axis of rotation
    • screw/rotation motion
    • example...axis and atlas
  59. Condyloid joint
    • 2 axis of rotation
    • wrist movement
  60. Saddle joint
    • 2 axis of rotation
    • example...thumb
  61. Ball and socket joint
    • 3 axis of rotation
    • fitting together
    • example...pelvis, hip, shoulder
  62. Bursae
    • fluidfilled sac to lubricate joint
    • lined with synovial membranes
    • filled with synovial fluid
  63. Bursitis
    Inflammation of bursa, caused by blow or friction.
  64. Tendonitis
    Inflammation of tendon sheaths
  65. Arthritis
    Inflammation of joints, or degenerative disease
  66. Osteoarthritis
    • Most common chronic arthritis
    • Probably related to normal aging process
  67. Rheumatoid arthritis
    • autoimmune disease
    • bilateral inflammation of certain joints
    • often leads to deformities
  68. At birth, the skull bones are               .
    incomplete
  69. Bones are joined by fibrous membranes called                .
    fontanelles
  70. Fontanelles are completely replaced with bone within                after birth.
    2 years

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