A & P Skeletal System
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4 parts of skeletal system
- 1. Bones
- 2. Joints
- 3. Cartilages
- 4. Ligaments
2 Divisions of skeleton
- 1. Axial - Core
- 2. Appendicular - Appendages
Functions of bones
- 1. Support
- 2. Protection
- 3. Movement
- 4. Storage of minerals and fats
- 5. Blood Cell Formation
How many bones in the body?
2 Types of bones
- 1. Compact - Homogeneous
- 2. Spongy
- - small needle-like pieces
- - many open spaces
4 classifications of bones
- 1. Long bone
- 2. Short bone
- 3. Flat bone
- 4. Irregular bone
Describe long bone and example
- - longer than wide
- - shaft with heads at both ends
- - contain mostly compact bone
- - example...femur, humerus
Describe short bone with example
- - cube-shaped
- - contain mostly spongy bone
- - example...carpals, tarsals
Describe flat bone with example.
- - thin and flattened
- - usually curved
- - thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone
- - example...skull, ribs, sternum, clavical
Describe irregular bone with example.
- - irregular shape
- - do not fit into other bone class
- - example...vertebrae, hip
- The shaft of the bone.
- Composed of compact bone.
- Ends of the bone.
- Mostly spongy bone.
- covers the external surface of the epiphyses.
- decreases friction at joint surface.
- also provides protection and support.
- Allow for growth of long bone during childhood.
- New cartilage is continuously formed.
- Older cartilage becomes ossified.
- Cartilage is broken down.
- Bone replaces cartilage.
3 types of bone cells.
- 1. Osteocytes
- 2. Osteoblasts
- 3. Osteoclasts
mature bone cells
- Bone-destroying cells.
- Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium.
A break in a bone.
2 Types of bone fractures.
1. Closed (simple) fracture - does not penetrate the skin.
2. Open (Compound) fracture - penetrates the skin.
Bone breaks into many pieces.
Bone is crushed.
Broken bone portion is pressed inward.
Broken bone ends are forced into each other.
- Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone.
- Common in sports.
- Bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks.
- Mostly happens to small children
- Located in midneck region.
- Only bone that does not articulate with another bone.
- Serves as a moveable base for the tongue.
How many bones in the vertebrae? Regions?
What are the 5 regions of the spine?
- 1. Cervical region - 7 vertebrae
- 2. Thoracic region - 12 vertebrae
- 3. Lumbar region - 5 vertebrae
- 4. Sacrum region - 5 fused vertebrae
- 5. Coccyx region - 4 fused vertebrae
The vertebrae is seperated by what?
The first cervical vertebrae is called?
The second cervical vertebrae is called?
Flat bone located between the ribs.
- flat bones
- the first 7 are true ribs attached to the sternum
- 8 - 12 ribs are called false ribs, not attached to sternum
Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
- Includes clavical and scapula
- allows upper limbs to have free movement
Also called the collarbone, flat bone
Also called the shoulder blade, flat bone
- Bony landmark - spine on scapula
- Above the spine, muscles are called superior
- Below the spine, muscles are called inferior
- Long bone
- Located from shoulder to elbow
- Pinky side of arm
- Medial in anatomical position
- Thumb side
- Lateral in anatomical position
Bones located in the hand.
- Carpals - wrist
- Metacarpals - hand
- Phalanges - fingers
- 1. Scaphoid - snuff box
- 2. Hamate - vibration break
Total weight of upper body rests on what?
Pelvis bones protect what organs?
- Reproductive organs
- Urinary bladder
- Part of the large intestine
- thigh bone
- long bone
- head - ball at the end
- neck - connects head to bone
What is the longest, largest, and strongest bone?
- smaller bone in lower leg
- on the outside
- does not bear weight
Bones located in the foot
- Tarsals - ankle
- Metatarsals - foot
- Phalanges - toes
Name right foot bones
- A. Calcaneus
- B. Talus
- C. Cuboid
- D. Navicular
- E. 3rd cuneiform
- F. 2nd cuneiform
- G. 1st cueiform
Three strong arches of foot
- 2 longitudinal - medial and lateral
- 1 transverse
Functions of joints
- Holds bones together
- Allows mobility
- zero axis of rotation
- example...bones of vertebrae
- 1 axis of rotation
- example...elbow and knee
- 1 axis of rotation
- screw/rotation motion
- example...axis and atlas
- 2 axis of rotation
- wrist movement
- 2 axis of rotation
Ball and socket joint
- 3 axis of rotation
- fitting together
- example...pelvis, hip, shoulder
- fluidfilled sac to lubricate joint
- lined with synovial membranes
- filled with synovial fluid
Inflammation of bursa, caused by blow or friction.
Inflammation of tendon sheaths
Inflammation of joints, or degenerative disease
- Most common chronic arthritis
- Probably related to normal aging process
- autoimmune disease
- bilateral inflammation of certain joints
- often leads to deformities
At birth, the skull bones are .
Bones are joined by fibrous membranes called .
Fontanelles are completely replaced with bone within after birth.
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